Title

高齡者避難決策與影響因素之探討-以高雄市甲仙區十五個案例為對象

Translated Titles

The Elderly Evacuation Decision-making and Influence Factors:A Case Study in Jiasian District, Kaohsiung

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.02434

Authors

薛欣怡

Key Words

莫拉克颱風 ; 高齡者 ; 疏散避難 ; 避難決策 ; typhoon Morakot ; the elderly ; evacuation ; decision making

PublicationName

臺灣大學建築與城鄉研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

陳亮全

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

臺灣人口結構因少子化、醫療發達等因素,快速朝向高齡化社會邁進,然而從日本阪神地震、美國卡崔納颶風以及311日本東北大地震的經驗看來,高齡者相對其他族群遭受災害風險較大,因而在災害中產生極大之課題,唯有盡早遠離災害進行疏散避難才能確保高齡者生命安全,但目前國內針對高齡者避難之研究少之又少。本研究希望能從有實際避難經驗的高齡者為對象,訪談高雄市甲仙區十五位高齡者,以了解高齡者於莫拉克颱風避難時考量避難與否的決策過程,及影響避難決策的相關因素,釐清高齡者避難時之特性。 研究發現,高齡者在避難過程中取得訊息以多重管道為主,來源以新聞為主尤其是有線電視台的台語頻道,其次為社區網絡;且由官方、社會網絡告知的訊息較容易產生避難行動;在取得訊息後,高齡者會納入自身或他人的經驗開始判斷訊息;願意進行避難的高齡者,則開始向他人尋求避難前的協助,協助內容以提供交通工具或是避難處所為主;等到威脅的徵兆發生或是協助抵達開始時,不論是否願意進行避難的高齡者皆傾向進行避難,尤其有小孩在家者,會增加避難意願;避難時,夫妻同住者多為夫妻共同避難,獨居者,會依賴平時社會網絡進行避難,而與子女同住的高齡者,反而與子女分開避難;避難後,高齡者傾向優先向透過社會網絡尋求提供避難處所的協助,其次則是依賴官方提供的避難處。 從研究看來,高齡者避難與否受社會環境影響小,而是傾向依據自身經驗與實質環境判斷,因此支撐高齡者判斷的認知與相當程度的災害經驗最為重要,然而高齡者因為生理不便降低社會參與,對於社區防災的課程參與度低,因此若欲增加高齡者災害認知應從高齡者日常熟悉管道生活著手。此外明確的避難訊息也能增加高齡者避難的意願,因明確訊息內提供避難協助的交通工具與官方指定的避難處所能誘使生理受限的高齡者產生行動,除顯示出高齡者於避難過程中依賴他人之需求外,平日高齡者避難的準備也相當重要。

English Abstract

Because of the reason of low fertility and the progress in medical field, Taiwan is becoming an aging society rapidly. However, according to the experiences of Kobe Earthquake, Hurricane Katrina and The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, the elderly suffers higher risk in disasters, and only evacuating the elderly from hazard as soon as possible can ensure their safety. Owing to the lack of study in evacuation of the elderly in Taiwan, in this study I interview fifteen elders who had experienced Typhoon Morakot in Jiasian to understand the elderly evacuation decision-making and influence factors. In this study, we find that the elderly obtain information from multiple channels, and the main source is from news especially Taiwanese pronunciation of cable television, the second source is from social network and the elderly who get message from official and social network are easier to evacuate. After accepting message, the elderly will identify the message and assess the risk based on their own or others experiences. Part of the elderly who are willing to evacuate will seek assistance in transportation and refuge from social network, no matter the elderly willing to evacuate or not before, once the sign of threat happens or the assistance arrives they all will escape, especially who have children at home. After making evacuation decision, people will leave house with his or her spouse who lives with, and solitaries will leave house with assistance from ordinary social networks, and the elderly who live with their children will leave house separately. After leaving house, the elderly tend to seek refuge through familiar social network at first, and the next choice is official refuge. According to this study, social environmental factors have small effect on evacuation decision making of the elderly, instead, the elderly tend to assess risk based on their own experience and physical environment, highlight the cognition and experience of the elderly at the same time. However, duo to the physical limitation, the elderly reduce their participation including the lessons about disasters, so if want to improve their cognition must via their daily life. Additionally, specific messages including the assistance in transport and refuge will tempt the elderly to evacuate from their house. It shows the need of the elderly in evacuation, and the importance of preparation for evacuation before disaster happens.

Topic Category 工學院 > 建築與城鄉研究所
工程學 > 土木與建築工程
工程學 > 市政與環境工程
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Times Cited
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