Title

查韋斯政府的石油外交研究:以美國與中國為例

Translated Titles

Hugo Chávez Government's Oil Diplomacy-Evidence from United States and China

DOI

10.6846/TKU.2012.00323

Authors

邱蘭晴

Key Words

委內瑞拉 ; 查韋斯 ; 石油 ; Venezuela ; Hugo Chá ; vez ; Oil

PublicationName

淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士班學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

熊建成

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

查韋斯於2005年始提出二十一世紀社會主義理論。該理論的目標是以人為本、改善拉丁美洲地區長期以來處於低度發展的情況、解決區域內不公不義的現象及加強區域內一體化的發展。對於查韋斯而言,委內瑞拉的石油不但是國家主權獨立的象徵,同時亦應用於國際政治中重要的地緣政治武器。因此,查韋斯上台後,便積極展開石油改革計畫,強化對國內石油產業的控制權,重整委內瑞拉國營石油公司,並利用石油收入進行社會發展計畫。   1999年,查韋斯提出「委內瑞拉的國家經濟與社會發展計畫」,計畫中提到委內瑞拉面臨的挑戰有:分散國家的經濟出口,同時處理社會問題,並提升窮人的地位。而發展計畫同時列出五項外交政策的主要目標:提倡多極化世界、促進拉美整合、鞏固並多元化委內瑞拉的外交關係、提倡新的西半球安全體系以及強化委內瑞拉於世界經濟的地位。   對中國而言,為了要維持穩定的發展,石油的需求就必須非常充分;因為它是每個工業化國家賴以生存發展的重要命脈。因此,石油供給來源就必須要穩定且多元化。本文採取質性歷史研究法與文獻分析法,透過現實主義與新自由主義兩項研究途徑,深入探討中國是否因為國際政治與經濟情勢的差異,採取不同的外交戰略模式?另外將務實與理論並重,描繪查韋斯石油外交的未來展望。並以歷史發展來陳述政策並依據經濟及社會數據,針對前述問題做討論。

English Abstract

In 2005, Chávez proposed Twenty-First Century Socialism. The purpose is to promote human rights, change the low developed situation in Latin America and integrate Latin America countries. To Chávez, the oil is not only the symbol of independence of national sovereignty, but also a useful geopolitical weapon in the field of international politics. Therefore, Chávez began his oil reformation: strengthen the state control to the oil industry, reorganize the national oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, PDVSA, and use the income to facilitate the social policy.   The outlines of Venezuela’s development policy are laid down in the new Constitution, introduced by the Chávez government in 1999, as well as in the National Economic and Social Development Plan for 2001-2007, which defines the principal challenges facing the country as (i) the need to diversify its economy and (ii) to deal with social challenges and the rise in poverty. The development plan lists five main objectives for its foreign policy as: (i)promote multi-polarity, (ii)promote Latin American integration, (iii)consolidate and diversity Venezuela’s foreign relations, (iv)promote a new regime of hemispheric security, (v)strengthen Venezuela’s position in the international economy.   To China, in order to sustain the stable development, the demand of oil which is the critical natural resource for each industrialized country must be sufficient. On the other hand, the origin of oil has to be stable and diversified. This paper conducts a qualitative study of China’s oil diplomacy using both historical and document analysis approaches. The consistency of this stratagem is further dissected through realism and Neo-liberalism studies. The goal is to outline the future prospects of Chávez’s oil diplomacy based on theories and facts. Then will present the historical development of the policies implanted by Chávez based on economic and social data.

Topic Category 人文學 > 人類學及族群研究
國際研究學院 > 拉丁美洲研究所碩士班
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  109. Bradley, Theresa, “Chavez Vows to Cut Venezuela Debt, Use Reserves in Social Fund,” Bloomberg, January 13, 2009. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=aPIZA0LsAbmM&refer=latin_america
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  111. Carroll, Rory, “Cuba and Venezuela turn against ethanol,” Guardian, April 7, 2007. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/apr/07/energy.cuba
  112. Carroll, Rory, “Hugo Chávez wins referendum allowing indefinite re-election,” Guardian, Feburary 16, 2009 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/feb/16/hugo-chavez-indefinite-rule
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  114. Dao, James, “U.S. Clarifies Stand on Venezuelan Vote,” The New York Times, December 17, 2002. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/17/world/us-clarifies-stand-on-venezuelan-vote.html
  115. Diaz, Sara Carolina, “Venezuela increases oil royalties to 16.66 percent,” El Universal, October 11, 2004. http://buscador.eluniversal.com/2004/10/11/en_pol_art_11A498695.shtml
  116. Duarte, Joe, “Venezuela Buys Oil to Meet Contract,” Rigzone, May 2, 2006. http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=31765
  117. Farivar, Masood, “OPEC Output cut Seen as Key to Oil Prices in 2007,” Rigzone, January 2, 2007. http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=39658
  118. Forero, Juan, “Documents show C.I.A Knew of a Coup Plot in Venezuela,” The New York Times, December 3, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/03/international/americas/03venezuela.html
  119. Fox, Michael, “Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia and Argentina Move Ahead on Integration,” Venezuelanalysis, April 28, 2006. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/1718
  120. Fox, Michael, “Venezuela and Colombia Agree on Gas Pipeline,” Venezuelanalysis, June 20, 2006. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/1795
  121. Fox, Michael, “Venezuela and Brazil Agree To 1st Phase of Transcontiental Gas Pipeline,” Venezuelanalysis, January 22, 2007. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/2186
  122. Harman, Danna, "Chavez seeks influence with oil diplomacy,” The Christian Science   Monitor, August 25, 2005. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0825/p01s04-woam.html
  123. Hafezi, Parisa, “Iran, Venezuela in ‘axis of unity’ against U.S.,” Reuters, July 2, 2007. http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSDAH23660020070702?feedType=RSS&rpc=22&sp=true
  124. Janicke, Kiraz, “Oil minister calls on Exxon and Conoco to leave Venezuela,”       Venezuelanalysis, August 30, 2007. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/2576
  125. Jones, Meirion, “Chavez rules out return to cheap oil,” BBC News, April 3, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4871938.stm
  126. Kraul, Chris, “China to invest $5 Billion in Venezuela Oil Projects,” Los Angels Times, August 29, 2006. http://articles.latimes.com/2006/aug/29/business/fi-venez29
  127. Mather, Steven, “Venezuela and Ecuador Sign Energy Agreements,” Venezuelanalysis, January 17. 2007. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/2180
  128. Mouawad, Jad, “OPEC Agree to Another Cut in Production,” The New York Times,     December 17, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/18/business/worldbusiness/18opec.html
  129. News behind the News, “Venezuelan President’s visit: Six pacts signed,” Indiamart, March 7, 2005. http://news.indiamart.com/news-analysis/venezuelan-president-9004.html
  130. Parma, Alessandro, “Venezuela's Chavez and Bolivia's Morales Sign 8 Agreements,” Venezuelanalysis, January 25, 2006. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/1582
  131. Parma, Alessandro, “Venezuela Faces Coexistence withe Ethanol,” El Universal, April 19, 2007. http://english.eluniversal.com/2007/04/19/en_eco_art_venezuela-faces-coex_19A857479.shtml
  132. Pierri, Raúl, “SOUTH AMERICA: Region’s Two Major Blocs Sign Free Trade Agreement,” IPS, October 19, 2004. http://www.ipsnews.net/login.asp?redir=news.asp?idnews=25925
  133. Press Tv, “Chavez: Russians drilling for gas,” NowPublic, October 30, 2008. http://www.nowpublic.com/world/chavez-russians-drilling-gas
  134. Press Trust of India (PTI), “Venezuela to invest in Indian oil refinery, petrochem projects,” Livemint, April 9, 2008. http://www.livemint.com/2008/04/09130632/Venezuela-to-invest-in-Indian.html
  135. Ranjan, Amitav, “Venezuela offers cheap oil, but conditions apply,” Indian Express, December 5, 2005. http://www.indianexpress.com/oldStory/83367/
  136. Reel, Monte, “Chávez Educates Masses at a University in His Image, The Washington Post, May 25, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/24/AR2006052402444.html
  137. Reuters, “Venezuela to import ethanol from Brazil,” The China Post,” May 2, 2007. http://www.chinapost.com.tw/news/archives/business/200752/108628.htm
  138. Rohter, Larry, “Venezuela Calls Tune In OPEC’s Price Tactics,” The New York Times, April 7, 2000. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/04/07/world/venezuelan-calls-tune-in-opec-s-price-tactics.html?pagewanted=1
  139. Rogers, Tim, “Chávez plays oil card in Nicaragua,” The Christian Science Monitor, May 05, 2006. http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0505/p01s04-woam.html
  140. Sequera, Vivian, “Venezuela Aids Bolivia Gas Nationalization,” San Fracisco Chronicle, May 26, 2006. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2006/05/26/financial/f125923D97.DTL
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  142. Suggett, James, “Japan and Venezuela Initiate Joint Orinoco Oil Projects and Expand Economic Ties,” Venezuelanalysis, April 6, 2009. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/4352
  143. Walter, Matthew, “Venezuela, Cuba Preparing to Bring Cienfuegos Refinery Online,” Bloomberg, November 18, 2007. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=aIFAcfl8P5KE&refer=news
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  145. Wilpert, Gregory, “Venezuela’s state oil co migrates foreign oil companies to joint ventures,” Venezuelanalysis, December 20, 2005. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/1535
  146. , “Venezuela Increases Proven Oil Reserves by 30%,” Venezuelanalysis, May 10 2008, http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/3426
  147. Wilson, Peter, “A Pipe Dream for Chavez?,” Business Week, August 21, 2007. http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/aug2007/gb20070820_418387.htm
  148. “Brazil’s Dedini sells four ethanol plants to PDVSA,” Reuters, July 2, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKN0241104820080702
  149. “Chavez, Ahmadinejad offer mutual support,” People’s Daily, May 24, 2006. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200605/24/eng20060524_268253.html
  150. “Chavez claims partners have “frozen” his huge gas pipeline project,” MercoPress, July 28, 2007. http://en.mercopress.com/2007/07/28/chavez-claims-partners-have-frozen-his-huge-gas-pipeline-project
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  152. “Chávez says U.S., Colombia plot to kill him,” Reuters, January 16, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN1654619420080117
  153. “Montesions: Humala is a political ‘pawn’ of Chavez and Castro,” El Universal, May 30, 2006. http://www.eluniversal.com/2006/05/30/en_pol_art_30A714409.shtml
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  167. “Venezuela to sell off US refineries,” Taipei Times, May 1, 2007. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/worldbiz/archives/2007/05/01/2003359053
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  171. (二)參考網站
  172. 中國大陸:
  173. 中華人民共和國商務部,http://zhs.mofcom.gov.cn/
  174. 中華人民共和國外交部,http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/
  175. 中國石油集團網站,http://www.cnpc.com.cn/
  176. 委內瑞拉:
  177. 委內瑞拉能源與石油部(Minsterio del Poder Popular para la Energía y Petróleo),http://www.mem.gob.ve/
  178. 委內瑞拉國家統計局(Instituto Nacional de Estadística),http://www.ine.gov.ve/ 
  179. 委內瑞拉外交部(Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores),http://www.mre.gob.ve/
  180. 委內瑞拉國營石油公司(Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A.),http://www.pdvsa.com/ 
  181. 美國:
  182. 美國國務院(U.S. Department of State),http://www.state.gov/
  183.  
  184. 美國能源資訊局(Energy Information Angency),http://www.eia.doe.gov/ 
  185. 拉丁美洲區域組織:
  186. 南美洲國家聯盟(Unasur),http://www.integracionsur.com/ 
  187.  
  188. 玻利瓦替代方案(ALBA),http://www.alternativabolivariana.org/
  189. 美洲自由貿易區網站(ALCA),http://www.ftaa-alca.org/ 
  190. 加勒比石油計畫(Petrocaribe),http://www.petrocaribe.org/
  191. 國際組織:
  192. 國際能源總署(IEA),http://www.iea.org/ 
  193. 石油輸出國家組織(OPEC),http://www.opec.org/
  194. 聯合國(United Nation),http://www.un.org