Title

添加無機阻燃劑及脫層石墨對EVA熱安定性與燃燒性之影響

Translated Titles

Effect of Addition Inorganic Flame Retardants and Exfoliated Graphite Nano-platelets on the Thermal and Combustion Properties of EVA Copolymer

DOI

10.6841/NTUT.2013.00083

Authors

楊羚

Key Words

氫氧化鋁 ; 氫氧化鎂 ; 脫層石墨 ; 乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯 ; Ethylene Vinyl Acetate ; Exfoliated Graphite nano-platelets ; Aluminum Hydroxide ; Magnesium Hydroxide

PublicationName

臺北科技大學化學工程研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2013年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

郭文正

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究以乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯(Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)為基材,將脫層奈米石墨(Exfoliated Graphite nano-platelets)分別與氫氧化鋁(Aluminum Hydroxide)及氫氧化鎂(Magnesium Hydroxide)藉由雙輥混煉機以高分子熔融法混合製備無鹵阻燃劑,分別製備EVA/MH/xGnP之高分子複合材料、EVA/ATH/xGnP之高分子複合材料進行高分子複合材料改質。 此高分子複合材料使用少量的脫層奈米石墨,部分取代金屬氫氧化物,觀察熱安定性與燃燒後的行為反應。以熱重分析儀(TGA)、限氧指數儀(LOI)、垂直燃燒測試(UL-94)在空氣下評估熱安定性,再以圓錐量熱儀(Cone Calorimeter)進行燃燒測試探討其燃燒後的型態與釋放濃煙狀況。 結果顯示,添加適量的脫層奈米石墨片可以有效地增進阻燃效果,提高LOI數值與UL-94阻燃等級,且TGA熱安定性有明顯的提升,Cone測試燃燒時間延長與熱釋放速率降低;其中熱安定性質以EVA(50wt%)/ATH(46wt%)/xGnP(4wt%)為最佳比例,當xGnP添加比例為4wt%時其測試結果LOI值為31.5、UL-94為V-0等級、TGA熱安定性值最佳、Cone燃燒測試peak HRR為271.02。

English Abstract

This study focused on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in combination with metal hydroxide and exfoliated graphite nano-platelets (xGnP). Also, this study implemented four types of fire test analysis, such as LOI, UL-94, and cone calorimeter for the metal hydroxide and the exfoliated graphite nano-platelets in EVA composites. The experimental results showed that when the xGnP was substituted for the aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide in EVA blends. When the xGnP added into the polymer, LOI value was improved, the UL-94 reached the V-0 rank, besides, the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) also showed that the xGnP increased the thermal stability and cone calorimeter test indicated that the peak heat released rate (pk-HRR) is reduced by 56%-70%.

Topic Category 工程學院 > 化學工程研究所
工程學 > 化學工業
Reference
  1. 5. 趙承先,無鹵阻燃EVA/LLDPE複合材料熱性質與機械性質之研究,碩士論文,2007
    連結:
  2. 6. M. Sain, S.H. Park, F. Suhara, S. Law, “Flame restardant and mechanical properties of natural fiber-PP composites containing magnesium hydroxide,” Journal of Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 83 ,2004,pp363-367
    連結:
  3. 8. F. Laoutid, L. Bonnaud, M. Alexandre, J.M. Lopez-Cuesta, Ph. Dubois, "New prospects in flame retardant polymer materials:From fundamentals to nanocomposites," Materials Science and Engineering, vol.63, 2009, pp.100-125.
    連結:
  4. 12. G. Lubin﹐ Handbook of Fiberglass and Advanced Plastic Composites﹐Van Nostrand﹐New York﹐1969.
    連結:
  5. 14. M. Kato, A. Usuki, A. Okada, "Synthesis of polypropylene oligomer-clay intercalation compounds," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol.66, 1997, pp.1781-1785.
    連結:
  6. 15. Laetitia Urbanczyk, Fred Ngoundjo, Michael Alexandre, Christine Jerome," Synthesis of polylactide/clay nanocomposites by in situ intercalative polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide," European Polymer Journal vol.45, 2009, pp.643–648.
    連結:
  7. 17. Jeffrey. W. Gilman, Catheryn. L. Jackson, Alexander B. Morgan, "Flammability Properties of Polymer-Layered-Silicate Nanocomposites. Polypropylene and Polystyrene Nanocomposites," Chemistry of Materials, vol.12, 2000, pp.1866-1873.
    連結:
  8. 18. J. Zhang, " Effects of nanoclay and fire retardants on fire retardancy of a polymer blend of EVA and LDPE," Fire Safety Journal, vol.44, 2009, pp. 504-513.
    連結:
  9. 19. Zhenzhong Li, “Flammability characterization and synergistic effects of expandable graphite with magnesium hydroxide in halogen-free flame-retardant EVA blends,” Fire Safety Journal, vol.81, 2003, pp.401-408.
    連結:
  10. 20. R.N.Rothon and P.R.Hornsby, “Flame retardant effects of magnesium hydroxide.” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 54, 1996, pp.383-385.
    連結:
  11. 21. Il-Hwan Kim, Young Gyu Jeong, “Polylactide/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with enhanced thermal stability, mechanical modulus, and electrical conductivity,” Journal of Polymer Science, vol.48, 2010, pp.850-858.
    連結:
  12. 22. Hongfang Zhu, “Synergistic effect between expandable graphite and ammonium polyphosphate on flame retarded polylactide,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol.96, 2011, pp.183-189.
    連結:
  13. 23. Ynh-Yue Yen, “Synergistic flame retardant effect of metal hydroxide and nanoclay in EVA composites,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol.97, 2012, pp.869-869.
    連結:
  14. 24. Peng Xiao, Kecheng Gong, "Preparation of exfoliated graphite/polystyrene composite by polymerization-filling technique," Polymer, vol.42, 2001, pp.4813–4816.
    連結:
  15. 25. L. Haurie, A. I. Ferna’ndez, J. I. Velasco, J. M. Chimenos, J. M. Lopez Cuesta, F. Espiell, “Thermal stability and flame retardancy of LDPE/EVA blends filled with synthetic hydromagnesite/aluminium hydroxide/montmorillonite and magnesium hydroxide/alumimium hydroxide/montmorillonite mixtures,”Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol.92, 2007, pp.1082-1087.
    連結:
  16. 26. 侯惠萍,添加層狀材料及石墨材料對EVA熱安定性與燃燒性之影響,碩士論文台北科技大學化學工程研究所,台北,2011。
    連結:
  17. 27. R. Sengupta, M. Bhattacharya, S. Bandyopadhyay, A.K. Bhowmick, “A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol.36, 2011, pp.638-670
    連結:
  18. 29. 吳維哲,奈米黏土/改質膨脹行阻燃劑於HDPE防火相乘效應之研究,碩士論文,台北科技大學化學工程研究所,台北,2011。
    連結:
  19. 30. 徐承儐,聚乳酸/氫氧化鋁/奈米黏土複合材料之阻燃性質,碩士論文,台北科技大學化學工程研究所,台北,2010。
    連結:
  20. 31. ASTM, Annual book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International: PA, 2006, pp. D635-06.
    連結:
  21. 32. ASTM, Annual Book of ASTM Starndards, ASTM International:PA; vol.4.07, 1999, pp.E1354-09.
    連結:
  22. 35. Siska Hamdani, Claire Longuet, Didier Perrin, "Flame retardancy of silicone-based materials," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol.94, 2009, pp.465–495
    連結:
  23. 37. T. Richard Hull, Dennis PRICE, Yan LIU, Claire L. Wills, Joan Brady, “An investigation into the decomposition and burning behaviour of Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer nanocomposite materials,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 82. 2003, pp. 365-371.
    連結:
  24. 39. F. Laoutid, L. Bonnaud, M. Alexandre, J.M. Lopez-Cuesta, Ph. Dubois, "New prospects in flame retardant polymer materials:From fundamentals to nanocomposites," Materials Science and Engineering, vol.63, 2009, pp.100-125.
    連結:
  25. 1. M. Pramanil, S. Srivastava, "Preparation and properties of ethylene vinyl acetate-clay hybrids," Journal of Materials science letters, vol.20, 2001, pp.1377-1380.
  26. 2. G. Camino1, R. Sgobbi1, A. Zaopo, S. Colombier and C. Scelza, "Investigation of Flame Retardancy in EVA," Fire and Materials, vol.24, 2000, pp.85-90.
  27. 3. 洪偉修教授. 世界上最薄的材料--石墨烯 (PDF). 98康熹化學報報. 康熹文化事業股份有限公司. 2009-11, 11月號
  28. 4. 王永強,阻燃材料及應用技術,化學工業出版社,第66-74頁
  29. 7. 沈永清、張信貞、莊學平、張榮樹,「高分子難燃機構及原理」,化工資訊,第九卷,第二期,1995,第15-32頁
  30. 9. Trarnn, H., Clar, C., Kuhnel, P.,Schuff, W., “Fireproofing of wood,” US patent, 1983, 20106938.
  31. 10. Olson, John W., Bechle, Charles W., “Bituminous flame resistant compositions and articles coated therewith”, US patent, 1948, 2442706.
  32. 11. Vanderall, H.L., “Intumescent Coating Systems, Their Development and Chemistry,” Journal of Fire and Flammability, vol. 2, 1971, pp. 97-140.
  33. 13. 邱長勛,「奈米材料在紡織及複合樣料之應用」,化工技術,第13卷,第3期,2005,第183~195頁。
  34. 16. H. G. Jeon, H. T. Jung, S. W. Lee, S. D. Hudson, "Morphology of polymer/silicate nanocomposites: High density polyethylene and a nitrile copolymer," Polymer. Bulletin. vol.41, 1998, pp.107-113.
  35. 28. ASTM, Annul Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM International : PA, 2006, pp. D2863-06.
  36. 33. CNS 14705,建築材料燃燒熱釋放率試驗法-圓錐量熱儀法,經濟部標準檢驗局,2010。
  37. 34. ISO5660, Fire Test, Reaction to Fire, Rate of heat release from building products. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1993.
  38. 36. G. Camino, R Sgobbi, A.Zaopo, S.Colombier, C. Scelza, “Investigation of Flame Retardancy in EVA,” Fire and Materials, vol. 24, 2000, pp.85-89.
  39. 38. “How to use smoke variables to describe product performance,” MEMORANDUM FOR Laboratories using Cone Calorimeters (No. 3), 9 September 1990.