Translated Titles

The Impact of Brand Personality and Self-congruity on Brand Loyalty of Quick Service Restaurant Customers: a Study of Facebook Fan Page Users





Key Words

品牌個性 ; 自我一致性 ; 品牌忠誠度 ; 速食餐廳 ; 臉書 ; brand personality ; self-congruity ; brand loyalty ; quick service restaurant ; Facebook



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication


Academic Degree Category




Content Language


Chinese Abstract


English Abstract

Today’s quick service restaurant (QSR) industry is highly competitive and challenging. Strong brands with distinctive personalities continuously lead by adapting innovative and creative marketing practices. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of brand personality and self-congruity on QSR customers’ loyalty as Facebook fan page users. The study also explores the relationship between Facebook fan page usage and dining behaviour. The research was conducted through literature review and quantitative analysis. Empirical data was aggregated from 103 Facebook fan page users of McDonald’s, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), and Burger King through online survey system. The study confirms that brand loyalty is positively influenced by brand personality and self-congruity. The findings also suggest that respondents with high Facebook fan page usage are significantly more loyal to the brand and tend to dine at the QSR more often compared to those with low usage. Marketers would benefit by effectively applying brand personality and self-congruity via Facebook to build strong brands.

Topic Category 人文學 > 地理及區域研究
餐旅學院 > 餐旅管理研究所
社會科學 > 管理學
  1. Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring Brand Equity Across Products and Markets. [Article]. California Management Review, 38(3), 102-120.
  2. Aaker, D. A. (2010). Building strong brands. London: Pocket.
  3. Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing research, 347-356.
  4. Aaker, J. L. (1999). The Malleable Self: The Role of Self-Expression in Persuasion. Journal of Marketing research, 36(1), 45-57.
  5. Aaker, J. L., Benet-Martinez, V., & Garolera, J. (2001). Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs. Journal of personality and social psychology, 81(3), 492.
  6. Achouri, M. A., & Bouslama, N. (2010). The Effect of the Congruence between Brand Personality and Self-Image on Consumer's Satisfaction and Loyalty: A Conceptual framework. IBIMA Business Review, 2010, 1-16.
  7. Austin, J. R., Siguaw, J. A., & Mattila, A. S. (2003). A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aaker brand personality measurement framework. [Article]. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2), 77.
  8. Azoulay, A., & Kapferer, J. N. (2003). Do brand personality scales really measure brand personality? The Journal of Brand Management, 11(2), 143-155.
  9. Back, K. J. (2005). The Effects of Image Congruence on Customers' Brand Loyalty in the Upper Middle-Class Hotel Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 29(4), 448-467.
  10. Back, K. J., & Parks, S. C. (2003). A Brand Loyalty Model Involving Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Brand Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 27(4), 419-435.
  11. Bell, J. (2010). Doing your research project : a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science (5th ed.). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Open University Press.
  12. boyd, d. m., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230.
  13. Brian, T. P. (2009). A comparison of brand personality and brand user-imagery congruence. [DOI: 10.1108/07363760910954118]. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(3), 175-184.
  14. Dev, C. S., Buschman, J. D., & Bowen, J. T. (2010). Hospitality Marketing: A Retrospective Analysis (1960-2010) and Predictions (2010-2020). Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(4), 459-469.
  15. Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-113.
  16. Gwinner, K. P., Gremler, D. D., & Bitner, M. J. (1998). Relational Benefits in Services Industries: The Customer's Perspective. [Article]. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26(2), 101-114.
  17. Han, H., & Back, K.-J. (2008). Relationships Among Image Congruence, Consumption Emotions, and Customer Loyalty in the Lodging Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 32(4), 467-490.
  18. Helgeson, J. G., & Supphellen, M. (2004). A conceptual and measurement comparison of self-congruity and brand personality. [Article]. International Journal of Market Research, 46(2), 205-233.
  19. Hyun, S. S. (2010). Predictors of Relationship Quality and Loyalty in the Chain Restaurant Industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(2), 251-267.
  20. Jamal, A., & Goode, M., M. H. (2001). Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction. [DOI: 10.1108/02634500110408286]. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(7), 482-492.
  21. Jiang, W., Dev, C. S., & Rao, V. R. (2002). Brand extension and customer loyalty: evidence from the lodging industry. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(4), 5-16.
  22. Kim, W. G., & Kim, H.-B. (2004). Measuring Customer-Based Restaurant Brand Equity. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 115-131.
  23. Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S., & Lee, D.-J. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of self-image congruence on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 59(9), 955-964.
  24. Lee, Y.-K., Back, K.-J., & Kim, J.-Y. (2009). Family Restaurant Brand Personality and Its Impact on Customer's Emotion, Satisfaction, and Brand Loyalty. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33(3), 305-328.
  25. Mattila, A. S. (2001). Emotional bonding and restaurant loyalty. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(6), 73-79.
  26. Murase, H., & Bojanic, D. (2004). An Examination of the Differences in Restaurant Brand Personality Across Cultures. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 11(2-3), 97-113.
  27. Murphy, L., Benckendorff, P., & Moscardo, G. (2007). Linking Travel Motivation, Tourist Self-Image and Destination Brand Personality. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 22(2), 45-59.
  28. Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., & Benckendorff, P. (2007). Using Brand Personality to Differentiate Regional Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46(1), 5-14.
  29. Musante, M. D., Bojanic, D. C., & Zhang, J. (2008). A Modified Brand Personality Scale for the Restaurant Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 16(4), 303-323.
  30. Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? [Article]. Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 33-44.
  31. Ove, C. H., & Marie, A. (2004). Customer satisfaction and retention: the experiences of individual employees. [DOI: 10.1108/09604520410513668]. Managing Service Quality, 14(1), 40-57.
  32. Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual : a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (3rd ed. ed.). Maidenhead: Open University Press.
  33. Peter, T., Michael, P., & Michael, W. (2003). Extending the capabilities of Internet-based research: lessons from the field. [DOI: 10.1108/10662240310478231]. Internet Research, 13(3), 223-235.
  34. Phau, I., & Lau, K. C. (2001). Brand personality and consumer self-expression: Single or dual carriageway? [Article]. Journal of Brand Management, 8(6), 428.
  35. Plummer, J. T. (2000). How Personality Makes a Difference. [Article]. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(6), 79-83.
  36. Prasad, K., & Dev, C. S. (2000). Managing Hotel Brand Equity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41(3), 22-31.
  37. Siguaw, J. A., Mattila, A., & Austin, J. R. (1999). The Brand-Personality Scale: An application for restaurants. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40(3), 48-55.
  38. Sirgy, M. J. (1982). Self-concept in consumer behavior: A critical review. Journal of consumer research, 287-300.
  39. Sirgy, M. J. (1985). Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase motivation. Journal of Business Research, 13(3), 195-206.
  40. Sirgy, M. J., & Su, C. (2000). Destination image, self-congruity, and travel behavior: Toward an integrative model. Journal of Travel Research, 38(4), 340-352.
  41. Sung, Y., & Tinkham, S. F. (2005). Brand Personality Structures in the United States and Korea: Common and Culture-Specific Factors. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 334-350.
  42. Trusov, M., Bucklin, R. E., & Pauwels, K. (2009). Effects of Word-of-Mouth Versus Traditional Marketing: Findings from an Internet Social Networking Site. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 90-102.
  43. Yik, M. S. M., & Russell, J. A. (2001). Predicting the Big Two of Affect from the Big Five of Personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 35(3), 247-277.
  44. Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality. [Article]. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31-46.
  45. Armano, D., Kimbarovsky, R., Chandra, A., Tyios, J., & Rettew, B. (2010). Fire Your Marketing Manager and Hire a Community Manager: Interaction. [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 88(10), 24-24.
  46. Barwise, P., & Meehan, S. (2010). The One Thing You Must Get Right When Building a Brand. [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 88(12), 80-84.
  47. Bernoff, J., & Schadler, T. (2010). 500 Billion. [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 88(12), 28.
  48. Brandau, M. (2011). McDonald's McCafe: An evolution. Retrieved 20 June 2012, from http://nrn.com/article/mcdonalds-mccaf%C3%A9-evolution
  49. Brandau, M. (2012). Restaurants use Facebook Offers, ordering to boost sales. Retrieved 18 May 2012, from http://nrn.com/article/restaurants-use-facebook-offers-ordering-boost-sales?NL=NRN-03&Issue=NRN-03_20120518_NRN-03_150&YM_RID=&utm_source=MagnetMail&utm_medium=email&utm_term=WILLIEGALOO@GMAIL.COM&utm_content=NRN-News-NRNam-05-18-12email&YM_MID=mmid
  50. BurgerKing. (2012). Burger King Facebook Fan Page. Retrieved 11 June 2012, from http://www.facebook.com/burgerking
  51. Chappuis, B., Gaffey, B., & Parvizi, P. (2011). Are your customers becoming digital junkies? [Article]. McKinsey Quarterly(3), 20-23.
  52. DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development : theory and applications (2nd ed. ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London: Sage.
  53. Dholakia, U. M., & Durham, E. (2010). One Cafe Chain's Facebook Experiment. [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 88(3), 26-26.
  54. DigitalCoCo. (2012). The top 100 restaurant social media brands. Retrieved 5 March 2012, 2012, from http://nrn.com/article/rsmi-2012-chart
  55. Geuens, M., Weijters, B., & De Wulf, K. (2009). A new measure of brand personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(2), 97-107.
  56. Google. (2011). The 1000 Most-visited Sites on the Web. Retrieved 5 June 2012, from http://www.google.com/adplanner/static/top1000/
  57. Interbrand. (2011). Best Global Brands 2011. Retrieved 24 Feb., 2012, from http://www.interbrand.com/en/best-global-brands/best-global-brands-2008/best-global-brands-2011.aspx
  58. Jennings, L. (2012). Study: Restaurants improve customer retention rates. Retrieved 11 June 2012, from http://nrn.com/article/restaurants-improve-customer-retention-rates?page=0,1#ixzz1yTXDiNMj
  59. KFC. (2012). KFC Facebook Fan Page. Retrieved 11 June 2012, from http://www.facebook.com/KFC
  60. Kumar, R., Luthra, A., & Datta, G. (2006). Linkages between Brand Personality and Brand Loyalty: A Qualitative Study in an Emerging Market in the Indian Context. South Asian Journal of Management, 13(2), 11-35.
  61. Lindgreen, A., Davis, R., Brodie, R. J., & Buchanan-Oliver, M. (2000). Pluralism in contemporary marketing practices. [DOI: 10.1108/02652320010358715]. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 18(6), 294-308.
  62. Mackenzie, J. (2012). Hoteliers finally get it – using social media and understanding the guest experience works. Retrieved 16 June 2012, from http://www.tnooz.com/2012/06/14/news/hoteliers-finally-get-it-using-social-media-and-understanding-the-guest-experience-works/
  63. McDonald's. (2012). McDonald's Facebook Fan Page. Retrieved 11 June 2012, from http://www.facebook.com/McDonalds
  64. Mustafa, T. (1999). Increasing brand loyalty in the hospitality industry. [DOI: 10.1108/09596119910272757]. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(5), 223-230.
  65. NRA. (2011). 2011 Restaurant Industry Forecast. Retrieved 2 March 2012, 2012, from http://www.restaurant.org/pdfs/research/forecast_2011.pdf
  66. Oches, S. (2011). Top 50 Sorted by Systemwide Sales: The top quick-serve and fast-casual brands in the nation. Retrieved 15 June 2012, from http://www.qsrmagazine.com/reports/top-50-sorted-systemwide-sales
  67. PageData. (2012). Facebook Top Pages. from http://pagedata.appdata.com/pages/leaderboard/-/-/-/fan_count/desc/-
  68. Piskorski, M. J. (2011). Social Strategies That Work. [Article]. Harvard Business Review, 89(11), 116-122.
  69. Randall, G. (1997). Branding. London: Kogan Page.
  70. Ruggless, R. (2012). Restaurants share keys to social media success at Summer Brand Camp conference. Retrieved 19 June 2012, from http://nrn.com/article/restaurants-share-keys-social-media-success?ad=marketing-news&utm_source=MagnetMail&utm_medium=email&utm_term=williegaloo@gmail.com&utm_content=NRN-News-NRNam-06-18-12#ixzz1yBSuTsZv
  71. Saunders, M., Thornhill, A., & Lewis, P. (2009). Research methods for business students (5th ed. ed.). Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
  72. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. (pp. 85-119): Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.
  73. Sirgy, M. J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T. F., Park, J.-O., Kye-Sung, C., Claiborne, C. B., et al. (1997). Assessing the Predictive Validity of Two Methods of Measuring Self-Image Congruence. [Article]. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3), 229.
  74. Syncapse. (2010). THE VALUE OF A FACEBOOK FAN: AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW. Retrieved 25 Nov. 2011, 2011, from http://syncapse.com/media/syncapse-value-of-a-facebook-fan.pdf
  75. Weber, R. M., & Horn, B. D. (2011). I Don't Get It (But I Will!). [Article]. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, 65(6), 37-39.
  76. Zhang, M. (2007). Impact of Brand Personality on PALI: A Comparative Research between Two Different Brands. International Management Review, 3(3), 36-44,107-108.