Title

從社會資本觀點探討知識分享、組織學習對組織學習績效影響之研究

Translated Titles

A STUDY ON IMPACTS OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING, ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING ON ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING PERFORMANCE FROM SOCIAL CAPITAL PERSPECTIVE

Authors

劉哲良

Key Words

知識分享 ; 組織學習 ; 社會資本 ; knowledge sharing ; organizational learning ; social capital

PublicationName

大同大學事業經營學系所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2005年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

梁文貴

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

隨著知識經濟時代來臨之際,企業需要的不只是傳統的生產因素,更重要的是擁有具備生產力的知識工作者才可面對這個快速變動的環境。若以知識為基礎的觀點來看,知識是公司競爭優勢的根本也是最重要和最主要公司價值的動因(Bock, Zmud, Kim, and Lee 2005)。因此,許多公司嘗試藉由在知識管理上的努力來確保在競爭中不被淘汰。Hendriks(1999)描述,知識分享已經被認為是知識管理中一項最主要的部份。在當組織面對新的問題時,而原本解決問題的方式以無法應付所需時,就會促使組織產生學習的動機(Szulanski,1996)。經由持續的組織學習,組織的成員也才能不斷提升知能與競爭力以利於組織的發展和永續經營。隨著企業重視組織學習和長期發展之際,若能重視社會資本的蓄積,成員間的相互的信任與了解更可為組織帶來更多的優勢(Fukuyama, 1995)。因此,本研究欲以實證研究方式,討論社會資本對知識分享與組織學習和組織學習與組織學習績效關係的影響。 本研究所探討的問題為下述四項:(1) 知識分享與組織學習的關聯為何;(2) 組織學習如何影響組織學習績效;(3) 社會資本對於知識分享與組織學習的關係是否有影響;(4) 社會資本對於組織學習與組織學習績效的影響為何;由研究問題提出十七項假設。本研究以文獻探討、問卷調查、次級資料蒐集、親自訪談四種方式進行。實證研究以天下雜誌2003年1000大製造業為研究對象,以結構方程式模型與階層迴歸進行分析;並以仁寶電腦公司為訪談對象,將訪談結果與研究分析結果相互呼應比較。 研究發現:(1)知識分享會正面影響組織學習;(2)組織學習會正向影響創新與新產品開發(組織學習績效);(3)社會資本對知識分享與組織學習之間的關係有部份影響;(4)社會資本會促進組織學習與組織學習績效之間的關係。研究結果顯示,知識分享的意願與能力都會影響組織學習。而組織學習對創新與新產品開發也有相當程度的影響。此外,社會資本對於知識分享與組織學習和織學習與組織學習績效之間的關係也有相當程度的影響。因此得知,公司在進行組織學習前應先具備知識分享的意願與能力,而要達到創新與新產品開發的結果需先建立組織學習的文化與能力,並且如能善於利用社會資本所來的效益更可促進知識管理相關活動的進行以強化競爭力。藉由本研究,期望能提供現今企業在進行知識享與組織學習的決策參考,並對未來相關議題的探討提供進一步的了解。

English Abstract

When entering the period of knowledge economy, organizations require not only traditional production factors but also productive knowledge workers to confront the rapidly changing environment. From knowledge-based view of the firm, knowledge is the foundation of corporation competitive advantage and the most important and key driver to the value of the company. Hence, many firms try to make an effort at pursuing knowledge management in order to survive the competition. It is well known that knowledge sharing has been identified as a major focus area for knowledge management. Facing new challenges will urge an organization to generate learning motivations for solving any new problems that may arise. On the other hand, when confronting a violent and competitive environment, companies have to recombine new knowledge absorbed with their original knowledge to begin organizational learning. Through continuous learning, not only will members in the organizations increase their knowledge and improve their capability but also organizations will build competence for future development and sustainable operation. Emphasizing on organizational learning and long-term development, storage of social capital by members will enable organization to gain more advantage. Therefore, this study employs empirical research to probe into the effect of social capital on the relationship between knowledge sharing and organizational learning. Moreover, social capital moderates the relationship between organizational learning and organizational learning performance or not. This research includes four questions: (1) Does knowledge sharing have influence on organizational learning in a cross-functional team? (2) How organizational learning affects organizational learning performance (innovation and new product development)? (3) Does social capital affect the relationship between knowledge sharing and organizational learning? (4) Dose social capitals influence the relationship between organizational learning and organizational learning performance? This study is carried out in literature review, questionnaire research, secondary data collection, and interviews. The samples of questionnaire research are manufacturing companies in Taiwan of CommonWealth Magzaine 1000 manufacturing enterprises in year 2003. We also interviews with Compal Electronics, Inc. to respond to research outcomes. There are four important findings in this research: (1) knowledge sharing positively affects organizational learning. (2) Organizational learning has a positive effect on innovation and new product development. (3) Social capital partially influences the relationship between knowledge sharing and organizational learning. (4) Social capital positively impacts on the relationship between organizational learning and organizational learning performance. Both knowledge sharing willingness and sharing capability have an impact on organizational learning. Organizational learning also influences innovation and new product development. Besides, internal social capital influences the relationship between knowledge sharing and organizational learning. On the other hand, external social capital influences the relationship between organizational learning and organizational learning performance. Hence, companies must have knowledge sharing willingness and capability before carrying out organizational learning. In order to attain innovation and new product development, companies have to build up on organizational learning culture and abilities. If firms can use advantages from social capital, they can improve knowledge management activities to enhance their competence. This is because social capital enables knowledge workers to acquire resources more easily and quickly for carrying out their tasks. It is hoped that this study would provide a beginning point and understanding of the current situation for further researches on related topics.

Topic Category 經營設計學院 > 事業經營學系所
社會科學 > 管理學
Reference
  1. Adler, P. S. and S. W. Kwon. “Social Capital: Prospects for a New Concept,” Academy of Management Review 27, (2002): 17-40.
    連結:
  2. Anderson, J. C. and D. W. Gerbing. “Structural Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-step Approach,” Psychological Bulletin 103, (1988): 411-423.
    連結:
  3. Andrews, K.M. and B.L. Delahaye. “Influence of Knowledge Process in Organizational Learning: The Psychosocial Filter.” Journal of Management Studies 37, no.6 (Sep 2000): 797-811.
    連結:
  4. Bagozzi, R. P. and Y. Yi, “On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models,” Journal of the
    連結:
  5. Baker, W. Achieving Success through Social Capital: Tapping the Hidden Resource in Your Personal and Business Networks. San Francisco, CA.: Jossey-Bass, 2000.
    連結:
  6. Bock, G.W., R.W. Zmud, Y.G. Kim, and J.N. Lee. “Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining The Role of Extrinsic Motivators, Social-Psychological Force, and Organizational Climate.” MIS Quarterly 29, no.1 (2005): 87-112
    連結:
  7. Calantone, R.J. S.T. Cavusgil, and Y. Zhao. “Learning Orientation, Firm Innovation Capability, and Firm Performance.” Industrial Marketing Management 31, no.6 (2002): 515-524.
    連結:
  8. Chang, C.C. P.L. Cheng, H. F. Chang, and T. C. Liu, Multivariate Analysis, 3rd ed. Taipei Wu-Nan Culture, 2004.
    連結:
  9. Cohen, W.M. and D.A. Levinthal. “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation.” Administrative Science Quarterly 35, (1990): 128-152.
    連結:
  10. Cohen, J. and P. Cohen. Applied Multiple Regression / Correlation Analysis for the
    連結:
  11. Coleman, J. S. “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital. ”American Journal of Sociology 94, (1988): 95-121.
    連結:
  12. Dakhli, M. and D.D. Clercq. “Human Capital, Social Capital, and Innovation: a Multi-country Study.” Entrepreneurship & Reginal Development 16 (Mar 2004): 107-128.
    連結:
  13. Damapour, F., “Organizational Innovation: a Meta-Analysis of Effects of Determinants and Moderators,” Academy if Management Journal 34, no.3 (1991): 555-590.
    連結:
  14. Dixon, N.D. Common Knowledge: How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000.
    連結:
  15. Dyer, J. H. and H. Singh. “The Relational View: Cooperative Strategy and Sources of Interorganizational Competitive Advantage.” Academy of Management Review 23 (1998): 660.679.
    連結:
  16. Edelman, L. F., M. Bresnen, S. Newell, H. Scarbrough, and J. Swan. “The Benefits and pitfalls of Social capital: Emprirical Evidence from Two Organizations in the United Kingdom.” British Journal of Management 15 (2004): S59-S69.
    連結:
  17. Fukuyama, F. Trust: Social Virtue and the Creation of Prosperity. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1995.
    連結:
  18. Garvin, D., “Building a Learning Organization,” Business Credit 96, no.1 (Jan 1994): 19-28.
    連結:
  19. Glynn, M.A.“Innovative Genius: A Framework for Relating Individual and Organizational Intelligences to Innovation.” Academy of Management Review 21, no.4 (Oct 1996): 1081-1102.
    連結:
  20. Goh, S. C. “Managing Effective Knowledge Transfer: An Integrative Framework and Some Practice Implications.” Journal of Knowledge Management 6, no.1 (2002): 23-30.
    連結:
  21. Ghoshal S. and C.A.Bartlett. “Linking Organizational Context and Managerial Action: The Dimentsion of Quality of Management.” Strategic Management Journal 15, no.5 (1994): 91-113.
    連結:
  22. Grant, R.M. “Toward a Knowledge-based Theory of the Firm.” Strategic Management Journal 17 (1996): 109-122.
    連結:
  23. Hamel, G. “Competition for Competence and Interpartner Learning within International Strategic Alliances.” Strategic Management Journal, 12 no.4 (1991): 83-103.
    連結:
  24. Hansen, M.T. “The Search-Transfer Problem: the Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge Across Organization Subunits.” Administrative Science Quarterly 44, (1999): 82-111.
    連結:
  25. Henderson, R.E and K.B. Clark. “Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms.” Administrative Science Quarterly 35, (1990): 9-30.
    連結:
  26. Hendricks, P. “Why Share Knowledge? The Influence of ICT on Motivation for Knowledge Sharing.” Knowledge and Process Management 6, no.2 (1999): 91-100.
    連結:
  27. Huber, G. P. “Organizational Learning: The Contributing Process and the Literatures,” Organization Science 2, no.1 (Feb 1991): 88-115
    連結:
  28. ________. “Synergies Between Organizational Learning and Creativity & Innovation.” Creativity and Innovation Management 72, no.1 (Mar 1998): 3-8
    連結:
  29. Kalling T. “Organization-internal Transfer of Knowledge and the Role of Motivation: a Qualitative Case Study,” Knowledge and Process Management 10, no.2 (2003): 115-126
    連結:
  30. Kogut, B. and U. Zander. “Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology.” Organization Science 3, no.3 (1992): 383-398.
    連結:
  31. ________. “ What Firms do? Coordination, Identity and Learning,” Organization Science 7 no.5 (1996): 502–510.
    連結:
  32. Kuo, C. J. “Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Learning,” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, I-Shou University, 2001.
    連結:
  33. Kwaku, A.G. and A. Ko. “An Empirical Investigation of The Effect of Market Orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation Alignment on Product Innovation.” Organization Science 12, no.1, (2001): 54-74.
    連結:
  34. Landry, R., N. Amara, and M. Lamari. “Dose Social Capital Determine Innovation to What Extent.” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 69 (2002): 681-701.
    連結:
  35. Lane, P., J. E. Salk, and M. A. Lyles. “Absorptive Capacity, Learning, and Performance in International Joint Ventures.” Strategic Management Journal 22, (2001): 1139-1161.
    連結:
  36. Lesser, E.L. and J. Storck, “Communities of Practice and Organizational performance,” IBM Systems Journal 40, no.4 (2001): 831-841.
    連結:
  37. Lin, S. H. “The Impact of Time-based Manufacturing and Mass Customization Practice on Value to Customer— An Empirical Investigation of Small and Medium Enterprises,” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Tatung University, 2004.
    連結:
  38. Madhavan, R. and R. Grover. “From Embedded Knowledge to Embodied Knowledge: New Product Development as Knowledge Management.” Journal of Marketing 62, no.4 (1998): 1-12.
    連結:
  39. Maybey, C. and G. Salaman. Strategic Human Resource Management Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1995.
    連結:
  40. McFadyen, M. A. and Albert A. Cannella, JR. “Social Capital and Knowledge Creation : Diminishing Returns of the Number and Strength of Exchange Relationships.” Academy of Management Journal 47, no.5 (2004): 735-746.
    連結:
  41. Nahapiet, J. and S. Ghoshal. “Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organization Advantage.” Academy of Management Review 23 (1998): 242-266.
    連結:
  42. Newell, S., C. Tansley, and J. Hung. “Social Capital and Knowledge Integration in an ERP Project Team: The Importance of Bridging AND Bonding.” British Journal of Management 15 (2004): 43-57.
    連結:
  43. _______, R. Toyama, and A. Nagata. “A Firm as a Knowledge-Creating Entity: a New Perspective on the Theory of the Firm.” Industrial & Corporate Change 9, no.1 (2000): 1-20.
    連結:
  44. Ravindranath, M. and R. Grover. “From Embedded Knowledge to Embodied Knowledge: New product Development as Knowledge Management.” Journal of Marketing 62, no.4 (Oct 1998): 1-12.
    連結:
  45. Reagans, R. and E. W. Zuckerman. “Networks, Diversity, and Productivity: The Social Capital of Corporate R&D Teams. ” Organization Science 12, no.4 (2001): 502-517.
    連結:
  46. Rindfleisch, A. and C. Moorman. “The Acquisition and Utilization of Information in New Product Alliances: A Strength-of-ties Perspective.” Journal of Marketing 65, (2001): 1-18.
    連結:
  47. Robbins, S.P. Organizational Behavior 10th. N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
    連結:
  48. Roda, C., A. Angehrn, T. Nabeth, and L. Razmerita. “Using Conversational Agents to Support the Adoption of Knowledge Sharing Practices.” Interacting with Computers15 (2003): 57-89
    連結:
  49. Saban, K., J. Lanasa, C. Lackman, and G. Peace. “Organizational Learning: a Critical Component to New Product Development.” Journal of Product &Brand Management 9, no.2 (2000): 99-119.
    連結:
  50. Shikhar, S. and V. Mahajan. “The Effect of Reward Structures on the Performance of Cross-Functional Product Development Teams.” Journal of Marketing 65 (April 2001): 35-53.
    連結:
  51. Sinkula, J.M., W. E. Baker and T. Noordewier. “A Framework for Market-Based Organizational Learning: Linking Values, Knowledge, and Behavior.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 25, no.4 (1997): 305-319.
    連結:
  52. Szulanski, G. “Exploring Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the Transfer of Best Practice within the Firm.” Strategic Management Journal 17, (winter special issue 1996): 27-43.
    連結:
  53. Teece, D. J. “Capturing Value from Knowledge Assets: The New Economy, Markets for Know-how, and Intangible Assets,” California Management Review 40, no.3 (1998): 55-79.
    連結:
  54. Tsai, W. and S. Ghoshal. “Social Capital and Value Creation the Role of Intrafirm Networks.” Academy of Management Journal 41, no.4 (1998): 464-476.
    連結:
  55. ________. “Social Structure of “Coopetition” within a Multiunit Organization: Coordination, Competition, and Intraorganizational Knowledge. ” Organization Science 13, no.2 (2002): 179-190.
    連結:
  56. ________. “Knowledge Transfer in Intraorganizational Networks: Effects of Network Position and Absorptive Capacity on Business Unit Innovation and Performance.” Academy of Management Journal 44, no.5 (2001): 996-1004.
    連結:
  57. Tymon, W.G. and S.A Stumpf. “Social Capital in the Success of Knowledge Workers.” Career Development International 8, no.1, (2003): 12-20
    連結:
  58. Van Den Bosch, F. A. J., H. W. Volberda, and Michiel De Boer. “Coevolution of Firm Absorptive Capacity and Knowledge Environment: Organizational Forms and Combinative Capability.” Organization Science 10, no.5 (Sep-Oct 1999): 556-568.
    連結:
  59. Wang, C.C. “The Influence of Ethical and Self-Interest Concerns on Knowledge Sharing Intentions among Managers: An Empirical Study.” International Journal of Management 21, no.3 (2004): 370-383.
    連結:
  60. Yli-Renko, H., E. Autio, and H.J. Sapienza. “Social Capital, Knowledge Acquisition, and Knowledge Exploitation in Young Technology-based Firms.” Strategic Management Journal 22, (2001): 587-613.
    連結:
  61. Yu, S.H. Y. G. Kim, and M. Y. Kim. “Linking Organizational Knowledge Management Drivers to Knowledge Management Performance: An Exploratory Study.” Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2004): 1-10.
    連結:
  62. __________ and __________ “Social Capital: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly,” in Lesser, E.L. (Eds.), Knowledge and Social Capital: Foundations and Applications, (1999): 89-115.
  63. Academy of Marketing Science 16 (1988): 74-92.
  64. Bouwen, R. and R. Fry. “Organizational Innovation and Learning,” International Studies of Management & Organization 21, no.4 (1991): 37-51.
  65. Cheng, C. H. “A Knowledge Creation Perspective on Performance of New Product Development: An Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, I-Shou University, 2003.
  66. Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983.
  67. Davenport, H.T. and L. Prusak. Working Knowledge. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.
  68. Forster R. Innovation: the Attacker’s Advantage. London: Macmillan, 1986.
  69. Hair, J. F., R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham, and W. C. Black.Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1998.
  70. Hall, H. “Sharing Capability: the Development of a Framework to Investigate Knowledge Sharing in Distributed Organizations.” Third European Conference on Organizational Knowledge, Learning and Capabilities, (2002): 1-20.
  71. Ho, T.Y. “Knowledge Flows and R&D Strategies of Foreign Enterprises in Taiwan - A Social Capital Perspective,” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, I-Shou University, 2002.
  72. Huang, C.F. “The Relationship between R&D Practices and Competitive Advantage,” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Tatung University, 2004.
  73. Nonaka, I. and H. Takeuchi. The Knowledge-Creating Company. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  74. Nunnally, J., “Psychometric Theory,” New York: McGraw-Hill,1994.
  75. Stata, R. “Organizational Learning — The Key to Management Innovation.” Sloan Management Review 30, no.3 (1989): 63-75.
  76. Stock, G.N., N. P. Greis, and W. A. Fischer, “Absorptive Capacity and New Product Development,” Journal of High Technology Management Research 12, no.1 (Spring 2001): 77-92.
  77. Ting, T. M. “Linking Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Learning in Business Communities of Practice,” Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, National Taiwan Normal University, 2002.
  78. Tsai, C. H. “The Effectiveness of Social Capital in Organizational Learning: An Empirical Study of ITRI R&D Consortia.” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, I-Shou University, 2002
  79. Wang, C. H. “Social Capital of Knowledge Economy Age.” National Science Council Science Development Magazine 362 (Feb 2003): 52-56.
  80. Wu, P.Y. “The Relationship between Total Quality Management Practice and Competitive Priorities,” Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Tatung University, 2004.
Times Cited
  1. 巫宛柔(2015)。桃園市國民中學教師覺知專業學習社群與教師個人學術樂觀之關聯性研究。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2015。1-131。 
  2. 李明蒼(2007)。我國軍事學校軍官知識分享意願與組織信任關係之研究─以陸軍兵科學校為例。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2007。1-209。
  3. 傅光華(2007)。國軍組織公平與知識分享意願關係之研究-以國防大學管理學院為例。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2007。1-122。
  4. 譚悅蘭(2008)。組織學習能力、知識分享成效、供應鏈管理績效對於組織績效之關聯性研究。崑山科技大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2008。1-58。
  5. 薛宇航(2008)。社會資本與就業政策:以多元就業開發方案為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系學位論文。2008。1-121。
  6. 柯淑惠(2008)。臺北市國民中學組織文化與教師知識分享意願關係之研究-以自然與生活科技領域教師為例。臺灣師範大學教育學系學位論文。2008。1-178。
  7. 潘姿伶(2009)。學校組織文化對教師知識分享意願影響之研究-以臺北市國民中學語文領域英語科教師為例。臺灣師範大學教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2009。1-167。
  8. 陳敏雄(2010)。T銀行激勵制度、職場友誼、社會資本與組織承諾對組織學習影響之研究。臺灣師範大學科技應用與人力資源發展學系人力資源碩士在職進修專班學位論文。2010。1-172。
  9. 林佑勳(2012)。轉型領導對知識分享與組織創新之影響:以教練制和溝通、組織學習為中介變項之跨層次分析。中央大學企業管理學系學位論文。2012。1-121。