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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing a document with a DOI, the DOI permanent URL should always be presented (if using APA or Chicago format, present number). If using a citation format that does not specify DOI, the DOI permanent URL should still be presented as a priority.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 59 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. C. EDWIN BAKER,馮建三譯,《傳媒、市場與民主(Media Concentration And Democracy: Why Ownership Matters)》,巨流(2008年1月)。
  2. 4. 安東尼.路易士,蘇希亞譯,《不得立法侵犯:蘇利文案與言論自由(MAKE NO LAW: THE SULLIVAN CASE AND THE FIRST AMENDMENT)》(民國 88 年)。
  3. 9. 林鈺雄,《刑事訴訟法(下),三版》,台北(2003年)。
  4. 1. 王兆鵬,<刑事舉證責任理論-由英美法理論出發>,《臺大法學論叢》,28卷第4期(1999年)。
  5. 7. 吳永乾,<美國誹謗法上所稱「真正惡意」法則之研究>,《國立中正大學法學集刊》,第 15 期(2004 年 4 月)。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 葉偉立(2016)。論侵害名譽權之不法性。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2016。1-234。 
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