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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 134 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王秀禾、葉美玲、鍾律琳、楊千慧 ( 2008).應用耳穴貼壓改善睡眠之成效.實證護理,4(3),243-250。
  2. 王偲潔、林大豐 ( 2006).規律運動及不同運動時段對睡眠品質影響之探討.大專體育,83,197-205。
  3. 王桂芸(2004b).新編內外科護理學.台北:永大。
  4. 方楸淑 (2006).外科加護病房病患睡眠品質及其相關因素.未發表的碩士論文.高雄:高雄醫學大學護理研究所。
  5. 朱嘉華 (1999).國小教師身體活動與睡眠品質之相關研究.未發表的碩士論文.台北:國立台灣師範大學體育研究所。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 莊小玲(2016)。台灣學齡期兒童睡眠狀況與相關因素探討。中山醫學大學醫學研究所學位論文。2016。1-176。
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