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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 80 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 行政院衛生署(1998).台灣常見食品營養圖鑑.
  2. 行政院衛生署(2010,10月1日).食品藥物管理局.台灣地區食品營養成份
  3. 柯玟玟、蔡仲弘(2009) .以簡易營養評估(MNA)台灣修訂版評估內科住院病患的營養狀況.未發表的論文,台中:亞洲大學。
  4. 潘文涵(1998) .國民營養健康狀況變遷老人調查1998-1999訓練手冊I & II,台北:國民健康局。
  5. 蔡玉純、楊福麟、邱艷芬、張芙美、李茹萍(2006).消化道重症手術病患之營養狀況、疾病嚴重度及術後合併症與預後之關係.台灣醫學,10(1),1-9。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 歐乃欣(2013)。心臟手術後卡路里攝取差異對身體活動功能之影響。臺灣大學護理學研究所學位論文。2013。1-77。 
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