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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 202 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王澤鑑,「法律思維與民法實例」,作者自行出版,2003年初版七刷。
  2. 陳聰富、陳忠五、沈冠伶、許士宦,「美國懲罰性賠償金判決之承認及執行」,學林文化事業有限公司,2000年。
  3. 黃榮堅,「基礎刑法學(上)」,元照出版有限公司,2003年5月初版。
  4. 呂綺珍,「論民事證據法上之事實認定與證明責任」,國立台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文,2005年。
  5. 林虹翔,「人體試驗之賠償與補償」,國立台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文,2007年。
Times Cited (12) 〈TOP〉
  1. 賴柏佑(2017)。共同侵權責任於醫療行為適用之界限。國立臺灣大學科際整合法律學研究所學位論文。2017。1-81。 
  2. 吳依蓉(2014)。醫療事件慰撫金之研究。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2014。1-259。 
  3. 關正闓(2012)。民刑事因果關係於訴訟證明之科學依據研究——以醫療事故案件為核心。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2012。1-211。 
  4. 莊錦秀(2011)。醫療民事責任體系再建構-以契約責任法理為中心-。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2011。1-525。 
  5. 李貞瑩(2009)。醫療民事責任因果關係成立與舉證之研究。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2009。1-176。
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