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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 91 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Works Cited
  2. Bonanno, Giacomo. “Location Choice, Product Proliferation and Entry Deterrence.” Review of Economic Studies 54 (1987): 37-45.
  3. Campbell Soup Company. Annual Report. Camden, NJ, 2003.
  4. d’Aspremont, C., J. Gabszewicz and J. Thisse. “On Hotelling’s Stability in Competition”, Econometrica, vol. 47, no. 5 (1979): 1145-50.
  5. ED&F Man Group PLC. Annual Report. London, UK, 1998.
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 謝宗翰(2010)。消費者生活型態與品牌權益知覺關係之探討—以法國巧克力品牌VALRHONA為例。淡江大學國際貿易學系國際企業學碩士在職專班學位論文。2010。1-76。 
  2. 雷士弘(2012)。麵包消費品味研究:以高雄市長棍麵包為例(1990 - 2010)。高雄餐旅大學台灣飲食文化產業研究所學位論文。2012。1-184。 
  3. 陳又華(2010)。18度C巧克力工房之策略行銷分析。政治大學企業管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-115。
  4. 張實紘(2013)。手工巧克力在台灣的現況與發展。高雄餐旅大學台灣飲食文化產業研究所學位論文。2013。1-111。
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