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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 126 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 莊翰華,《都市行銷理論與實務》,新竹:建都文化事業股份有限公司,1998。
  2. KOTLER, Philip(翁瑾、張惠俊譯),《地方營銷:城市、區域和國家如何吸引投資、 產業和旅遊》( Marketing Places. Attracting investment, industry, and tourism to cities, states, and nations),上海:上海財經大學,2008。
  3. 李政亮,〈萬國博覽會的首都—巴黎〉,《歷史月刊》,第 277 期,2006,頁 16-20。 杜漪、張小梅,「城市節慶對城市形象的塑造」,發展,第一期,2006,頁 52。 芮家楹,〈事件只是手段,行銷才是目的〉,《突破雜誌》,第 236 期,2005,頁 104-106。
  4. 許文聖,〈魅力台灣—談台灣的城市行銷策略〉,《研考雙月刊》,第 30 卷,第五期, 2006,頁 83-89。
  5. 楊中信,〈以溝通模式為架構之系統性展示手法理論〉,《博物館學季刊》,第 11 卷, 第二期,1997。
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