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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 63 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 台灣PISA國家研究中心(2010)。學生能力國際排名。取自:
  2. 呂瑞蓮、林紀慧(2008)。國民小學圖書資訊教師知能指標及現況之研究。師大學報:教育類,53(2),83-110。
  3. 林素甘、柯皓仁(2007)。圖書館館員專業知能與繼續教育。國家圖書館館刊,2,31-63。
  4. 林菁、李佳憓(2009)國小圖書教師與班級教師合作設計資訊素養融入教學。教育資料與圖書館學,47(2),199-230。
  5. 涂進萬(2012)。中小學圖書館。圖書館學鑑。臺北市:國家圖書館。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳文雅(2017)。社區生態導覽解說員基礎培訓專業知能之需求評估- 以「陽明山古蹟聚落生態護育聯盟」為例。淡江大學教育科技學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2017。1-123。
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