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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 16 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [2] Panyai, S., Thanachayanont, A., “Design and Realization of a Process and Temperature Compensated CMOS Ring Oscillator,” 2012 9th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), 2012, pp.1-4.
  2. [4] B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
  3. [5] Chien-Ying Yu, Jui-Yuan Yu, and Chen-Yi Lee, “A Low Voltage All-Digital On-Chip Oscillator Using Relative Reference Modeling,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, VOL. 20, NO. 9, Sep. 2012, pp.1615-1620.
  4. [6] Yan Lu, Gang Yuan, Lawrence Der, Wing-Hung Ki, and C. Patrick Yue, “A ±0.5% Precision On-Chip Frequency Reference With Programmable Switch Array for Crystal-Less Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—II: Express Briefs, VOL. 60, NO. 10, Oct. 2013, pp.642-646
  5. [7] Y.-H. Chiang, and S.-I. Liu,“A Submicrowatt 1.1-MHz CMOS Relaxation Oscillator With Temperature Compensation,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—II: Express Briefs, VOL. 60, NO. 12, Dec. 2013, pp.837-841
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 張國寗(2017)。具製程與溫度變異補償機制之可調式寬頻輸出時脈產生電路。淡江大學電機工程學系碩士班學位論文。2017。1-83。
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