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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 69 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 沈子軒、雷立芬(2014),「台灣拖網漁業之效率評估-非意欲產出與擁擠投入的影響」,東吳經濟商學學報,2014年第85期
  2. 紀玉臨、賴進貴(2010),「區域經濟收斂與空間外溢效應」,地理學報,2010年第58期
  3. 夏國釗(2011),「台灣政府機關能源效率分析¬-非意欲因素模型之應用」,台北科技大學優質電力供電產業研發
  4. 莊忠柱、吳振國(2005),「台灣區農會信用部經營效率評估:非意欲因素資料包絡分析法的應用」,東吳經紀商學學報,2005年第52期,1-26
  5. 陳美華(2010),「利用資料包絡法建立國家科技研發效率評估模型之研究」,中原大學資訊管理學系
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