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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 112 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 內政部(2020)。內政統計通報。「109年第10週_老化與扶養」,(7,Mar,2020),
  2. 方圓媛、洪佳黛、詹瑞君、 李芸湘(2017)。 談癌症病人家屬照顧者心理衝擊與介入方案。 榮總護理, 34(3), 220-226,
  3. 王峻宏(2019)。日本安倍政府高齡少子化下勞動力短缺問題對策之探討--從生產函數的觀點。 淡江大學日本政經研究所碩士班學位論文,1-94。
  4. 吳秋燕、張素珠(2014)。 老年人身體活動與生活品質之探討。 臺中科大體育學刊, 10,33-44,
  5. 吳聰敏(2004)。 從平均每人所得的變動看台灣長期的經濟發展。 經濟論文叢刊Taiwan Economic Review, 32(3), 293- 320,
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