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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 116 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [2] 交通部觀光局,觀光政策白皮書,台北:交通部觀光局, 2002。
  2. [7] 王媛慧、李文福、翁竹君,「台灣國際觀光旅館業生產力與效率分析:隨機邊界距離函數之應用」,經濟論文叢刊,第三十五卷,第一期,2007。
  3. [19] 尚瑞國、王斐青、洪維廷,「臺灣地區國際觀光旅館經營型態與經營效率之衡量」,亞太經濟管理評論,第七卷,第一期,2004,第109-123頁。
  4. [20] 帥嘉珍、何豐成,「網路行銷與旅館營運績效研究-資料包絡分析法之應用」,明新學報,三十五卷,2009,第79-93頁。
  5. [29] 許銘珊,「高屏地區國際觀光旅館經營相對效率之評估-DEA模式之應用」,臺灣觀光學報,第八期,2011,第13-34頁。
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