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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 38 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 楊國樞、文崇一,吳聰賢、李亦園(1994)。社會及行為科學研究法。台北:東華。 賴允亮(1998)。安寧療護服務品質稽核及作業系統之建立。衛生署委託計劃。 英文部份 Aaronson, N.K., Ahmedzai, S., Bergman, B. Kind, P. (1993). The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30:A quality of life instrument for use in international clinical trials in oncology. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 83:365-376.
  2. Bruera, E., MacDonald, S. (1993). Audit methods:The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System. In:Higginson I, ed. Clinical Audit in Palliative Care. Oxford:Radcliffe Medical Press. Calman, K.C. (1984). Quality of life in cancer patients-an hypothesis. Journal of Medical Ethics, 10:124-127.
  3. Carmines, E.G., Zeller, R.A.(1979). Reliability and validity assessment . Beverly Hills, carifornia:Sage Publication, Inc. Cohen, S.R., Mount, B.M., Strobel, M.G. (1995). The McGill quality of life questionnaire:a measure of quality of life appropriate for people with advanced disease. A preliminary study of validity and acceptability. Palliative Medicine, 9:207-219.
  4. Copperman, H. (1992). Hospice home care services (letter). Palliative Medicine, 6:260. Cronbach, L.J. (1995). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of test. Psychometrika, 16:297-334.
  5. Eve, A. Smith, A.M.(1994). Palliative care service in Britain and Ireland-update 1991. Palliative Medicine, 8 (1):19-27.
Times Cited (7) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪麗琴(2008)。緩和療護方案(Palliative Care Program)介入對護理人員知識、態度與照護品質之成效。中山醫學大學護理學系學位論文。2008。1-114。 
  2. 許美柔(2008)。成人加護病房護理人員提供善終照護模式之探討。臺北醫學大學護理學系碩士暨碩士在職專班學位論文。2008。1-211。 
  3. 簡采汝(釋常妙)(2009)。人間淨土的開展 : 宗教信仰於癌症患者生活品質相關性研究。法鼓文理學院佛教學系學位論文。2009。1-129。 
  4. 高鴻文(2003)。安寧療護理念衛教方案介入對大學生善終信念、安寧療護知識及接受度之影響。亞洲大學健康管理研究所學位論文。2003。1-138。
  5. 施勝烽(2008)。探討醫院安寧療護團隊成員工作調適之歷程。中國醫藥大學醫務管理學系碩士班學位論文。2008。1-134。
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