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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 62 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 石曜堂, 葉金川, 楊漢, 羅紀, 張明正, 吳正儀. (1994). 台灣地區國民自付醫療費用調查:1992年國民醫療保健支出調查之初步發現. 中華公共衛生雜誌, 13(6), 473-484.
  2. 毛政賢. (2005). 社區老人社會支持與醫療利用之相關性研究-以苗栗縣為例. (碩士), 亞洲大學, 台中市. Retrieved from
  3. 王文岑, 林靜芬, & 黃純德. (2013). 高雄市長期照護機構50歲以上住民牙科就醫行為之調查. [Dental Visit behavior for Elderly Residents in Long-term Care Institutions in Kaohsiung Area]. Taiwan Journal of Oral Medicine Sciences, 28(2), 103-115.
  4. 江昇達, 王勝廣, 高東煒, 方文輝, 張耀文, 高森永, & 周稚傑. (2011). 高齡患者長期住院醫療利用影響因子之探討. [Influential Factors of Medical Utilizations among Long-Stay Elderly Inpatients]. 台灣老年醫學暨老年學雜誌, 6(2), 86-104.
  5. 吳淑瓊, 梁浙西, 張明正, 林惠生, & 孟蘿拉. (1994). Utilization of Health Services among the Elderly in Taiwan. [台灣老人醫療服務之使用]. 中華公共衛生雜誌, 13(2), 168-182.
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