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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 123 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 白嘉玲(2010)・不同背景變項的單身成人依附風格、宗教認同態度和人際親密能力之關係研究(未發表碩士論文)・台北:國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所。
  2. 何英奇(1987)・大專學生之生命意義感及其相關:意義治療法基本概念之實徵性研究・教育心理學報,20,87-106。
  3. 吳奇璋、黃惠滿、高家常、高碧凰(2010)‧養護機構內老年人自主性及其相關因素之探討‧長期照護雜誌,14(1),27-34。
  4. 吳柄緯(2011)・老人人際親密、社會參與及心理健康狀況之相關研究(未發表碩士論文)・台北市:國立臺北教育大學心理與諮商研究所。
  5. 李婉伶(2008)・護理之家老年人之生命意義(未發表碩士論文)・台中市:中國醫藥大學護理研究所。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 游雅雯(2016)。資深榮民的生命歷程及其超越老化經驗學習之研究。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2016。1-170。
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