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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 152 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1.江大樹、張力亞(2009)。縣市長的領導力與地方治理-一個標竿學習的實證研究。臺灣民主季刊,6(2),頁61-125。
  2. 2.江旭新、鄭宇廷(2015)。國際觀光旅館之品牌文化、品牌契合、品牌心理擁有感與品牌公民行為之關係探討:跨層次分析。觀光休閒學報,21(1),頁21-53。
  3. 4.杜怡潔(2015)。半導體產業員工組織承諾對主管領導風格和工作績效之中介作用-員工幸福感之調節效果。國立高雄師範大學人力與知識管理研究所碩士論文。
  4. 6.李有容、張惠堂、黃國宬(2016)。桃園免費公車之擴散與延續:2001-2014。東吳政治學報,34(2) ,頁109-161。
  5. 10.吳欣蓓、陸洛、顧家祈、張妤玥(2010)。轉換型領導行為、部屬工作壓力及主管滿意度的關聯:人格特質為調節變項。中華管理學報,11(2)頁1-30。
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