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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 77 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 05. 台灣經濟研究院(民國90)「建構知識經濟運作之創新系統-台灣生物技術產業發展策略」。
  2. 12. 翁明祥(民國78)「技術創新政策與事業經營策略的配合對技術創新績效之影響--台灣合成樹脂業實証研究」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所未出版博士論文。
  3. 24. 經建會(民國90)「發展生物科技產業行動計畫」。
  4. 28. 賴士葆(民國79),「技術創新特性與新產品發展績效相關之研究」,管理評論,頁102-114。
  5. 29. 賴士葆(民國81),「技術策略與新產品發展績效相關之研究」,科技管理論文集,pp.27-50 。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 周義証(2010)。台灣食品生技廠商之價值創造 ─以中草藥與保健食品為例。臺灣大學農業經濟學研究所學位論文。2010。1-96。
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