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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 32 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王曉雯,王泰昌與吳明政,2008,企業經營型態與研發活動績效,管理學報,第25卷第2期,173-193。
  2. 林婷鈴,陳靜怡與任立中,2007,解析自有品牌策略與績效關係的迷思:層級貝氏迴歸模式之運用,臺大管理論叢,第18卷第1期,117-150。
  3. 洪清德,2004,使命感、客戶網路和供應商網路:影響我國電子資訊產業代工和自創品牌策略抉擇因素的探討,管理學報,第21卷第4期,451-476。
  4. 楊朝旭,2008,集團多角化對研發外溢調節效果之研究,會計評論,第46期,31-65。
  5. 葉銀華,1998,家族控股集團與股票報酬共變性之實證研究,臺大管理論叢,第9卷第1期,25-49。
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