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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 128 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 內政部、衛生署、勞委會(2009)。我國長期照顧十年計畫∼97年至100年中程計畫,臺北市:內政部。
  2. 內政部社會司(2012)。「身心障礙者個人照顧服務辦法」草案及「身心障礙家庭照顧者服務辦法」草案,業經本部於101年1月19日以內授中社字第10007185472號及第10007185474號公告。取自
  3. 內政部統計處(2006)。94年身心障礙者生活需求調查結果摘要分析。取自
  4. 王沂釗(1994)。家庭結構、家庭關係與青少年生活適應之分析研究。學生輔導,36,108-118。
  5. 王秀紅(1994)。照顧者角色對婦女衝擊:護理的含意,護理雜誌,41(3),18-23。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉安庭(2015)。兒少家庭照顧者成年轉銜過程的經驗。臺灣大學社會工作學研究所學位論文。2015。1-160。 
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