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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 79 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁興祥、賴誠斌(2001)。〈心理傳記學的開展與應用:典範與方法〉。《應用心理研究》,第12期,頁77-106。
  2. 江慧儀(2004)。《臺灣民間環保團體的環境教育現況與社會實踐-一個批判的環境教育觀點》。臺灣師範大學環境教育研究所碩士論文。
  3. 邱雅婷(2008)。《探討參與民間環保團體活動教師的轉化實踐》。臺灣師範大學環境教育研究所碩士論文。
  4. 施宜煌(2005)。《弗雷勒意識覺醒理論及其德育蘊義》。國立臺灣師範大學教育學系博士論文。
  5. 夏鑄九(1994)。重構公共空間──理論的反省。台灣社會研究。第16期,頁21-54。
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