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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 384 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 國立台灣師範大學教育研究所博士論文,未出版。
  2. 成虹飛(1995)。教師主體性的重建:通識教育與師資培育系列
  3. 座談會。通識教育季刊,第2卷,第4期。
  4. 期。臺北:翰林出版事業股份有限公司。
  5. 國家政策研究資料中心。
Times Cited (24) 〈TOP〉
  1. 楊欣燕(2006)。我國國民小學教師專業標準發展之研究。淡江大學教育科技學系碩士班學位論文。2006。1-196。 
  2. 黃聖育(2009)。中學導師採用行動績效支援系統之行為及態度改變歷程。交通大學教育研究所學位論文。2009。1-129。 
  3. 許志瑋(2007)。高中職教師激勵因子及保健因子之研究。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2007。1-105。 
  4. 莊慧敏(2008)。桃園縣國民小學校長家長式領導與教師專業自主關係之研究。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2008。1-154。 
  5. 陳寧翔(2010)。澎湖縣國小教師健康與體育學習領域專業發展需求與專業能力之研究。臺東大學進修部暑期體育碩士班學位論文。2010。1-115。 
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