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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 68 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王明月、黃振華、李亭儀、謝淑娟 (2012)。桌球選手運動成就動機、流暢體驗與運動表現之相關研究。運動與遊憩研究,7(1),89-101。
  2. 王柏青、侯錦雄(1995)。關渡濕地遊客環境態度類群之研究。觀光研究學報,1(4),1-2。
  3. 李元宏 (2013)。臺北市女性參與運動中心之休閒運動參與動機及阻礙之研究。嘉大體育健康休閒期刊,12(3),12-23。
  4. 李明儒、郭家瑜 (2011)。探討參與帆船運動者的參與動機、活動涉入及流暢體驗之研究。運動休閒餐旅研究,6(1),95-109
  5. 李明儒、郭家瑜 (2011)。探討參與帆船運動者的參與動機、活動涉入及流暢體驗之研究。運動休閒餐旅研究,6(1),95-109。
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