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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 51 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 李芳齡 譯,Jeffrey K. Liker(2004),The TOYOTA Way :14 management principles from the world’s greatest manufacture,台北市: 美商麥格羅‧布爾國際股份有限公司 台灣分公司。
    2. 李超雄,2005,企業流程管理下的成本績效與組織再造-日本産業新概念“Cell production system”,品質月刊,41卷8期,頁57-61。
    3. 李鴻生、楊錦洲,2009,細說豐田生産方式, 品質月刊 ,45卷3期,頁13-18。
    4. 李鴻生、楊錦洲,2009,豐田生產方式之看板系統,品質月刊,45卷4期,頁42-49。
    5. 李鴻生、楊錦洲,2010,TPS系統之製造品質管理(V)-TPS系統之標準作業,品質月刊,46卷2期,頁40-48。
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