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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 225 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李丁讚、吳介民(2008)。公民社會的概念史考察。謝國雄主編,群學爭鳴:台灣社會學發展史1945-2005。頁393-446。台北:群學。
  2. 朱雲漢(2004)。台灣民主發展的困境與挑戰。台灣民主季刊,第1期,頁143-162。
  3. 林萬億(2005)。1990年代以來台灣社會福利發展的回顧與展望。社區發展季刊,第109期,頁12-35。
  4. 吳秀照、高迪理、王篤強(2009)。台灣政經轉型下之制度變遷—子計畫二:社會福利民營化下福利服務輸送之變遷。行政院國科會專題研究計畫成果報告,未出版。
  5. 吳思芸、楊宗文(2008)。非營利組織與政府關係之探討—以高中體總為例。2008年北京奧運會後兩岸體育發展研討會論文集。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳湘晴(2014)。政府與非營利組織之協力關係: 以台中市政府愛心食物銀行為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系學位論文。2014。1-175。
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