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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 73 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王守玠、楊得政 (民96)。慢性腎臟病患者常見之心血管疾病。腎臟與透析,19(2),89-94。
  2. 王舒民、楊雅斐、黃秋錦 (民96)。慢性腎臟病與高血壓。腎臟與透析,19(2),64-70。
  3. 林明彥、黃尚志 (民96)。臺灣慢性腎臓病/末期腎臓病流行病學過去、現在與未來。腎臟與透析,19(1),1-5。
  4. 郭宜瑾、洪啟智、陳鴻鈞 (民102)。慢性腎臟病貧血診斷與治療的新進展。內科學誌,24(4),278-287。
  5. 陳苓怡、郭美娟、黃尚志、蔡哲嘉、陳鴻鈞等人(民101)。臨床評估腎臟功能方法之優缺點。內科學誌,23(1),34-41。
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