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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 128 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Pred, A.(1983)。Structuration and Place: On the Becoming of Sense of Place and Structure of Feeling(許坤榮譯)。收錄於夏鑄九、王志弘(編譯)空間的文化形式與社會理論讀本(81-103頁)。台北市:明文書局。
  2. 那魯灣股份有限公司(1998)。那魯灣股份有限公司簡介。臺北:那魯灣股份有限公司。
  3. 李柏陞(2009)。都市行銷與運動行銷結合之研究-以中華職棒為例。國立政治大學國際經營與貿易研究所碩士論文。
  4. 林千源(1995)。兄弟象職業棒球隊消費者行為之研究。國立臺灣師範大學體育學系研究所碩士論文。
  5. 陳維智、陶武訓(2008)。消費者我族感、球員喜好度、球隊認同度與收視意願之關係研究─以國立臺灣體院學生為例。臺灣體育運動管理學報,第七期,頁69-81。
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