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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 196 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王育群 (2000)。簡介二十一世紀台灣發展觀光新戰略。大葉學報,9(2),15-17。
  2. 李宗鴻、鄭天明、許仲瑋 (2005)。國人赴俄羅斯觀光行為模式之研究。在銘傳大學管理學院編,2005城市觀光與兩岸觀光旅遊學術研討會(pp.117-135)。台北:私立銘傳大學。
  3. 李怡慧 (2004)。在台外籍人士對台北市城市形象評價之研究。未出版之碩士論文,大同大學事業經營研究所,台北。
  4. 李素馨 (1997)。都市女性休閒類型和休閒阻礙。戶外遊憩研究,10(1), 43-68。
  5. 李素馨 (1999)。都市視覺景觀偏好之研究。都市計畫,26(1),19-40。
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