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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 60 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 毛國光(2009)。幼教產業購買動機及購買重視因素分析。國立政治大學管理碩士學程碩士論文,未出版,臺中市。
  2. 吳雨桑、林建平(2009)。大學生英語學習環境、學習動機與學習策略的關係之研究。臺北市立教育大學學報,40(2),181-222。
  3. 吳青蓉(2009)。大學生英語學習動機、行動控制、學後設認知與學業成就關係之研究。2009臺灣教育學術研討會。
  4. 吳青蓉、張玉茹、羅廷瑛(2009)。幼保系學生的英語學習動機、行為控制、後設認知及其學業成就之相關研究。慈濟大學教育研究學刊,5,56-82。
  5. 李宜娟(2006)。朝陽科技大學幼兒英語師資培訓課程(一)實施成效之初探研究。朝陽人文社會學刊,4(2),137-184。
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