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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 101 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王明元、林倩綺、許浴蒼(2008)。鹿港地區居民對城市觀光衝擊認知與態度之研究。管理實務與理論研究,2,228-247。
  2. 江昱仁、方婕、蔡進士(2008)。都市河岸遊客動機、觀光意象與滿意度 之研究。運動與遊憩研究,3,52-78。
  3. 交通部觀光局(2008)。中華民國96年觀光業務年報。台北市:交通部觀光局。
  4. 李銘輝、曹勝雄、張德儀(1995)。遊憩據點條件對遊憩需求之研究。觀光研究學報,1(1),25-39。
  5. 李台京(2007)。新竹市城市觀光的創新及發展。中華行政學報,4,7-22。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 温承容(2016)。與陌生人同行旅遊之價值研究。朝陽科技大學企業管理系學位論文。2016。1-102。
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