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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 52 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林秋慧(2005)。女性教職員角色衝突、休閒阻礙對休閒活動參與之影響-以中壢地區技職院校為例。南亞學報,25,331-346
  2. 祝道松(2008)。領導型態、審計結構與審計人員角色壓力對工作滿意度關係之研究。國立東華大學會計與公司治理第五卷,1(6), 1-32。
  3. 高麗雀、徐南麗(2002)。應用Mintzberg的十個角色理論探討管理能力的提昇。慈濟護理雜誌,1(2),12-16。
  4. 張伊萍( 2003)。探討西醫基層萎縮的原因。碩士論文,臺北市:台北醫學大學醫務管理學研究所。
  5. 張雅雯(2008)。機關首長領導風格、指揮不一致、角色壓力與專業承諾之關係 研究-以主計人員為例。碩士論文,台中:靜宜大學管理研究所。
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