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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 103 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 石幸真(2009),台中縣國民小學因應少子化經營策略之研究。中臺科技大學文教事業經營研究所碩士論文。
  2. 拓墣產業研究所(2004),遊戲產業白皮書,台北。
  3. 韋端(2001),大家來關心台灣產業走向,國政評論,台北:財團法人國家政策研究基金會出版。
  4. 張春興(1997),教育心理學。台北:東華書局。
  5. 馮嘉玉(2003),國中學生電玩遊戲使用經驗、成癮傾向及其自覺健康狀況之研究研究生,國立台灣師範大學衛生教育學系碩士論文。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林明慧(2012)。青少年手機使用行為與手機依賴之研究—以桃園縣國中生為例。元智大學社會暨政策科學學系學位論文。2012。1-177。
  2. 巫惠玉(2014)。高職生使用智慧型手機APP軟體與人際關係之研究-以慈明高中餐飲管理科為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2014。1-73。
  3. 張榮造(2016)。高雄市國小學童使用智慧型手機行為與學業成就關係之研究。樹德科技大學資訊管理系碩士班學位論文。2016。1-92。
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