Title

中美洲地區農業扶貧成長與糧食安全之分析

Translated Titles

Pro-poor Agricultural Growth and Food Security in Central America

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2011.01106

Authors

艾波沙

Key Words

地區農業扶貧成長與糧食安全之分析 ; Pro-poor ; growth ; inequalities ; structural ; transformation

PublicationName

臺灣大學農業經濟學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2011年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

張靜貞

Content Language

英文

English Abstract

The reduction of poverty and increased food security are two main objectives of the agricultural growth process. But growth in Central America has not been pro-poor, and a large share of the rural population lives in conditions of poverty and food insecurity. These problems are related to the prevalence of inequalities between the agricultural sector and the rest of the economy. These inequalities have been growing in Central America, as the process of structural transformation unfolds. The particularities of this process in Central America are highlighted and the effect of these growing inequalities on poverty and food insecurity is review. Conclusions are drawn on the need for further research to focus on intra-sectoral inequalities in the case of Central America, because of the presence of a dual agricultural sector, where a small farmer’s sub-sector coexists with a large exporting agricultural sub-sector.

Topic Category 生物資源暨農學院 > 農業經濟學研究所
生物農學 > 農業
Reference
  1. - Adelman, I., 1984. “Beyond Export-Led Growth.” World Development, Vol. 12, pp. 973 -986
    連結:
  2. - Bairoch, P., 1975. The Economic Development of the Third World Since 1900. Berkeley: University of California Press
    連結:
  3. - Berry, A. and W.R. Cline, 1979. Agrarian Structure and Productivity in Developing Countries. International Labour Organization, Geneva.
    連結:
  4. - Bourguignon, F. and C. Morrison, 1990. “Income Distribution, Development and Foreign Trade: A Cross-sectional Analysis.” European Economic Review, Vol. 34, pp. 1113-1132.
    連結:
  5. - Bourguignon, F. and C. Morrison, 1998. “Inequality and Development: The Role of Dualism.” Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 57, pp 233-257.
    連結:
  6. - Buttari, J., 1992. “Economic Policy Reform in Four Central American Countries: Patterns and Lessons Learned.” Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp.179-214
    連結:
  7. - Chenery, H.B. and M. Syrquin, 1975. Patterns of Development, 1950-1970. London: Oxford University Press.
    連結:
  8. - Chenery, H.B. and L. Taylor, 1968. “Development Patterns among Countries and Over Time.” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 50, pp 391-416.
    連結:
  9. - Deininger, K. and L. Squire, 1998. “New Ways of Looking at Old Issues: Inequality and Growth.” Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 57, pp. 259-287.
    連結:
  10. - Dijkstra, A., 1996. “The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programs on Manufacturing: Lessons from Nicaragua” World Development, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 535-547
    連結:
  11. - Espindola, E., A. Leon, R. Martinez, and A. Schejtma, 2005. Poverty, hunger and food security in Central America and Panama. ECLAC, Serie Politicas Sociales, No. 88
    連結:
  12. - Fan, S., C. Chan-Kang, and A. Mukherjee, 2005. Rural and Urban dynamics and poverty: Evidence from China and India. Draft Paper, IFPRI, Washington, D.C.
    連結:
  13. - Fogel, R.W., 1991. “The Conquest of High Mortality and Hunger in Europe and America: Timing and Mechanisms.” In P. Higonnet, D.S. Landes, and H. Rosovsky, (eds.), Favorites of Fortune: Technology, Growth, and Economic Development since the Industrial Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 35-71.
    連結:
  14. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 1958. Coffee and Latin America. Productivity Problems and Future Prospects. 1. Colombia and El Salvador. United Nations, New York.
    連結:
  15. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2001. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2001. FAO, Rome.
    連結:
  16. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2009. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2009. FAO, Rome
    連結:
  17. - Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2010. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2010. FAO, Rome
    連結:
  18. - Gasparini, L., 2003. Income Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from Household Surveys. CEDLAS, Working Papers 0002, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    連結:
  19. - Greenwood, J. and Jovanovic B., 1990. “Financial Development, Growth and the Distribution of Income.” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, pp. 1076-1107.
    連結:
  20. - Grunwald, J. and P. Musgrove, 1970. Natural Resources in Latin American Development. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    連結:
  21. - International Monetary Fund (IMF). Balance of Payments Yearbook, 1983. IMF, Washington, D.C.
    連結:
  22. - Johnston, B. and J.W. Mellor, 1961. “The Role of Agriculture in Economic Development.” American Economic Review Vol. 51, pp. 566-593.
    連結:
  23. - Koo, Y.C., 1966. “Economic Consequences of Land Reform in Taiwan.” Asian Survey, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp 150-157.
    連結:
  24. - Kuznets, S., 1966. Modern Economic Growth. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    連結:
  25. - League of Nations. International Trade Statistics. Geneva, 1930
    連結:
  26. - Lewis, W.A., 1954. “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor.” Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 22, pp. 139-191.
    連結:
  27. - Mellor, J.W., 1976. The New Economics of Growth: A Strategy for India and the Developing World. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
    連結:
  28. - Pisani, M., 2001. “The Negative Impact of Structural Adjustment on Sectoral Earnings in Nicaragua.” Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 107-125
    連結:
  29. - Rauch, J. E., 1993. “Economic Development, Urban Underemployment, and Income Inequality.” Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 26, pp. 901-918.
    連結:
  30. - Ravallion, M., and G. Datt., 1996. “How Important to India’s Poor Is the Sectoral Composition of Economic Growth?” The World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.1-25.
    連結:
  31. - Strauss, J., 1986. “Does Better Nutrition Raise Farm Productivity?” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp. 297-320.
    連結:
  32. - Thirtle, C., L. Lin, and J. Piesse, 2003. “The Impact of Research Led Agriculture Productivity Growth on Poverty Reduction in Africa, Asia and Latin America.” World Development Vol. 31, pp. 1959-75.
    連結:
  33. - Thorbecke, E., and H. S. Jung, 1994. A Multiplier Decomposition Method to Analyze Poverty Alleviation. Ithaca, N.Y. Processed: Cornell University, Department of Economics.
    連結:
  34. - Timmer, C. P., 1988. “The Agricultural Transformation.” In H. Chenery and T.N. Srinivasan, (eds.), Handbook of Development Economics. Vol. 1. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 275-331.
    連結:
  35. - Timmer, C. P., 2005b. Agriculture and Pro-Poor Growth: An Asian Perspective. Working Paper No. 63. Center for Global Development, Washington, DC.
    連結:
  36. - Timmer, C. P. and S. Akkus, 2008. The Structural Transformation as a Pathway out of Poverty: Analytics, Empirics and Politics. Working Paper No. 150. Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C.
    連結:
  37. - United Nations, 2010. The Millennium Development Goals Report. Source: Internet, WWW; available from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG%20Report%202010%20En%20r15%20-low%20res%2020100615%20-.pdf#page=8
    連結:
  38. - Universidad de Costa Rica, 1959. El Desarrollo Economico de Costa Rica. N°3, Estudio del Sector Agropecuario. San Jose, Costa Rica: Universidad de Costa Rica.
    連結:
  39. - Van der Meer, C. and S. Yamada, 1990. Japanese Agriculture: A Comparative Economic Analysis. London and New York: Routledge.
    連結:
  40. - World Bank, 1986. Poverty and Hunger: Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
    連結:
  41. - Barro, R. J., 1999. Inequality, Growth and Investment. NBER Working Paper No. 7038, Cambridge MA: NBER.
  42. - Baumeister, E., 2010. Pequenos Productores de Granos Basicos en America Central. FAO-RUTA, Honduras.
  43. - Birdsall, N. and L. Londono, 1997. “Asset Inequality Matters: An Assessment of the World Bank’s Approach to Poverty Reduction.” American Economic Review, Vol. 87, pp 32-37.
  44. - Bliss, C., and N. Stern, 1978. "Productivity, Wages, and Nutrition: Parts I and II: The Theory," Journal of Development Economics Vol. 5, pp 331-398.
  45. - Bulmer-Thomas V., 1987. The Political Economy of Central America since 1920. Cambridge University Press.
  46. - Byerlee, D., X. Diao, and C. Jackson, 2005. Agriculture, Rural Development, and Pro-poor Growth: Country Experience in the Post-Reform Era. Agricultural and Rural Development Discussion Paper 21. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
  47. - Carnoy, M. and C. A. Torres, 1992. Educational change and structural adjustment: A case study of Costa Rica. Monograph prepared for the Unesco-ILO Inter-agency Task Force on Austerity, Adjustment, and Human Resources. Occasional paper series. UNESCO, Paris.
  48. - Chenery, H. B., 1960. “Patterns of Industrial Growth,” American Economic Review, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 624-654.
  49. - Clemens, H. and R. Ruben, 2000. “Nuevos Desafios para el Desarrollo del Agro Centroamericano.” In Clemens, H. and R. Ruben (eds.), Desarrollo Rural y Politicas Agrarias en Centroamericano: Tendencias, Estrategias y Alternativas desde el Enfoque Neo-Institucional. Caracas: Editoral Nuevo Sociedad, pp. 1- 8.
  50. - Consejo Monetario Centroamericano. Boletin Estadistico. San Jose, Costa Rica.
  51. - Deininger, K. and G. Feder, 1999. “Land Institutions and Land Markets.” Source: Internet, WWW; available from http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/essdext.nsf/24DocByUnid/E765B7E36D16149085256 B990063A21A/$FILE/landinstitutionsandmarkets.pdf
  52. - Hayami, Y., 1986. Agricultural Protectionism in the Industrialized World: The Case of Japan. Prepared for a conference held at the East-West Center, Honolulu, February 17-21.
  53. - Knight, J. B. and R. H. Sabot, 1983. “Educational Expansion and the Kuznets Effect.” American Economic Review, Vol. 73, pp.1132-1136.
  54. - Kuznets, S., 1955. “Economic Growth and Inequality.” American Economic Review, Vol. 45, pp. 1-28.
  55. - Lucas, R., 2005. “Pro-poor Economic Growth: A Review of the Recent Literature.” In: Pro-poor Growth: Tools and Key Issues for Development Specialists, USAID.
  56. - Mellor, J. W., 2000. Agricultural Growth, Rural Employment, and Poverty Reduction: Non-Tradables, Public Expenditure, and Balanced Growth. Prepared for the World Bank Rural Week 2000, March.
  57. - Monteforte Toledo, M., 1972. Centro America: Subdesarrollo y Dependencia. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales.
  58. - Mosher, A. T., 1966. Getting Agriculture Moving: Essentials for Development in the Open Economy. New York: Praeger.
  59. - Reuben-Soto, S., 1982. Capitalismo y Crisis Economica en Costa Rica: 30 Anos de Desarrollo. San Jose, Costa Rica: Editorial Porvenir.
  60. - Schultz, T.W., 1975. “The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria.” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 13, pp. 827-846.
  61. - SIECA, 1967. Quinto Compendio Estadistico Centroamericano. SIECA, Guatemala.
  62. - SIECA, 1981. VII Compendio Estadistico Centroamericano. SIECA, Guatemala.
  63. - SIECA/INTAL, 1973. El Desarrollo Integrado de Centro America en la Presente Decada: Bases y Propuestas para el Perfeccionamiento y la Reestructuracion del Mercado Comun Centroamericano. 13 vols. INTAL, Buenos Aires.
  64. - Strauss, J., and D. Thomas, 1998. “Health, Nutrition, and Economic Development.” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 766-816.
  65. - Timmer, C. P., 1997. How Well do the Poor Connect to the Growth Process? mimeo, Harvard Institute for International Development.
  66. - Timmer, C. P., 2005a. “Food Security and Economic Growth: An Asian Perspective.” H. W. Arndt Memorial Lecture, Australian National University, Canberra (November 22), in Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Vol. 19, pp. 1-17.
  67. - World Bank, 1993. The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.