Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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劉芸芳 , Masters  Advisor:莊吉發  



Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 130 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 2. 王樹槐,《中國現代化的區域研究--江蘇省,1860-1916》,台北:中央研究院近代史研究所專刊,48,民73
    2. 7. 莊吉發,〈從清代律例的修訂看秘密會黨的起源與發展〉,《國立台灣師範大學歷史學報》,18,台北:國立台灣師範大學歷史研究所,民79
    3. 8. 莊吉發,〈清代紅幫源流考〉,《漢學研究》,1:1,台北:漢學研究中心及服務中心,民72.6
    4. 10. 莊吉發,〈清代嘉慶年間的白蓮教及其支派〉,《師大歷史學報》,8,台北:國立台灣師範大學歷史研究所,民69.5
    5. 22. David E. Kelly,Temples And Tribute Fleets:The Luo Sect and Boatmen's Association in Eighteenth Century,Modern China,8.3,1982.7
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 莊博智(2011)。天庾重地-明清時期漕運制度下的通州。暨南大學歷史學系學位論文。2011。1-143。 
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