Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。



Data Source: Academic Citation Index (ACI)
As Taiwan's largest Citation Index, we currently have on record all Humanities, and Sociology journals that were published in Taiwan. The number of periodicals that are published on a regular basis total around 400 different types. If periodicals that were added to the collection but then halted are counted as well, the number of periodicals total over 500 types. Every year we announce the recorded periodicals' impact factor, etc. to the public, and allow scholars utilize our materials to carry out academic research for free.

Impact Factor: The statistic indicating the average number of times a journal's articles published in the past two years have been cited in the counting year.
Formula: (Number of cites in counting year to articles published in the span of two years ) ÷ (Number of articles published in the span of two years)
Example: The impact factor in 2010 (determined in 2011)
In 2009, Journal A published 15 articles, and these 15 articles were cited 20 times in 2010.
In 2008, Journal A published 16 articles, and these 16 articles were cited 30 times in 2010.
→ →2010's Impact Factor = (20+30) ÷ (15+16) = 1.61 =(20+30)÷(15+16)≒1.61


What is "Preprint"?

In order to provide readers the forefront academic information, after articles are accepted to publish in the journal, we publish them in network before they're printed. Those "on-line first articles" are called the "preprint articles". The preprint articles do not have volume No., page No., publication date, but can be identified by the DOI number. 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 Link to the latest version of the article.

How to cite Preprint Articles?

Please use the online publication date and the DOI number of the preprint article to cite the literature.

Cited example (may vary with different formats you cited):

Author name. Article name. Journal name. YYYY/MM/DD online publish in advance.

doi:DOI Number

0 people approve of this article Recommend
Chinese Abstract 〈TOP〉
Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 30 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Yang, K. P.(2003).Relationships between nurse staffing and patient outcomes.The Journal of Nursing Research,11(3),149-158.
  2. Central News Agency. (2011). Taiwan: Majority of Taiwan hospitals facing shortage of nurses: Poll. Retrieved from http://www.taiwannews.com.tw/etn/news_content.php?id=1576842
  3. Bureau of National Health Insurance. (2011). Inpatient Medical Benefit Claims by Professional Category. Retrieved from http://www.nhi.gov.tw/webdata/Webdata.aspx?menu=17&menu_id=661&webdata_id=3418&WD_ID=689 (Original work published in Chinese)
  4. Aiken, L. H.,Clarke, S. P.,Sloane D. M.(2001).Hospital restructuring: Does it adversely affect care and outcome?.Journal of Health Human Services Administration,23(4),416-442.
  5. Aiken, L. H.,Clarke, S. P.,Sloane, D. M.,Sochalski, J.,Silber, J. H.(2002).Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction.JAMA,288(16),1987-1993.
  6. American Nurses Association(1999).Principles for nurse staffing.Washington, DC:Author.
  7. Blegen, M. A.,Vaughn, T.,Pepper, G.,Vojir, C.,Stratton, K.,Boyd, M.,Armstrong, G.(2004).Patient and staff safety: Voluntary reporting.American Journal of Medical Quality,19(2),67-74.
  8. Chen, Y. C.、Yu, Y. M.、Chiang, T. L.、Chen, K. H.、Chang, D. R.、Lin, Y. J.、Cheng, T. Y.(1990)。Council for Economic Planning and Development ReportCouncil for Economic Planning and Development Report,Taiwan, ROC.:Executive Yuan。
  9. Clarke, S. P.,Aiken, L. H.(2003).Failure to rescue.American Journal of Nursing,103(1),42-47.
  10. Conway, P. H.,Tamara Konetzka, R.,Zhu, J.,Volpp, K. G.,Sochalski, J.(2008).Nurse staffing ratios: Trends and policy implications for hospitals and the safety net.Journal of Hospital Medicine,3(3),193-199.
  11. Hardin, J. W.,Hilbe, J. M.(2003).Generalized estimating equations.New York, NY:Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  12. International Council of Nurses(1973).15th Quadrennial Congress of the International Council of Nurses.Nursing Outlook,21(8),506-511.
  13. Jarman, B.,Gault, S.,Alves, B.,Hider, A.,Dolan, S.,Cook, A.,Iezzoni, L.(1999).Explaining differences in English hospital death rates using routinely collected data.British Medical Journal,318(7197),1515-1520.
  14. Kao, C. C.(2008)。2008 International Nurses Day Press Conference。The National Union of Nurses' Associations News,63,10。
  15. Kovner, C.,Gergen, P. J.(1998).Nurse staffing levels and adverse events following surgery in U.S. hospitals.Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship,30(4),315-321.
  16. Lan, C. F.、Hsu, H. Y.、Yen, K. S.、Tsai, S. L.、Shen, Y. T.、Chiu, P. I.、Tsai, C. Y.(1991)。Correlates of clinical nursing workforce in Taiwan。Journal of National Public Health Association Republic of China,10(5),212-225。
  17. Liang, K. Y.,Zeger, S. L.(1986).The analysis of discrete and continuous longitudinal data.Biometrics,42(1),121-130.
  18. Liang, Y. W.、Huang, L. C.、Yin, Y. C.、Chen, W. Y.、Chuang, C. L.、Lee, J. L.(2010)。Effect of nurse staffing on patient outcomes: A review of the literature。The Journal of Nursing,57(5),77-82。
  19. Liu, S. F.(2005)。The effects of national health insurance on nursing practice。Nursing Manpower Policy Forum,Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC.:
  20. Manheim, L. M.,Feinglass, J.,Shortell, S. M.,Hughes, E. F.(1992).Regional variation in Medicare hospital mortality.Inquiry: A Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing,29(1),55-66.
  21. Needleman, J.,Buerhaus, P.,Mattke, S.,Stewart, M.,Zelevinsky, K.(2001).Final report for Health Resources and Services AdministrationFinal report for Health Resources and Services Administration,Boston, MA:Harvard School of Public Health.
  22. Parish, C.(2002).Minimum effort.Nursing Standard,16(42),12-13.
  23. Pronovost, P. J.,Dang, D.,Dorman, T.,Pamela, A. L.,Garrett, E.,Mollie, J.,Bass, E. B.(2001).Intensive care unit nurse staffing and the risk for complications after abdominal aortic surgery.Effective Clinical Practice,4(5),199-206.
  24. Rafferty, A. M.,Clarke, S. P.,Coles, J.,Ball, J.,James, P.,McKee, M.,Aiken, L. H.(2006).Outcomes of variation in hospital nurse staffing in English hospitals: Cross-sectional analysis of survey data and discharge records.International Journal of Nursing Studies,44(2),175-182.
  25. Safford, B. J.,Schlotfeldt, R. M.(1960).Nursing service staffing and quality of nursing care.Nursing Research,9(3),149-154.
  26. Sales, A.,Sharp, N.,Li, Y. F.,Lowy, E.,Greiner, G.,Liu, C.,Needleman, J.(2008).The association between nursing factors and patient mortality in the Veterans health Administration.Medical Care,46(9),938-945.
  27. Sun, C. C.、Lin, P. F.、Kao, C. C.、Change, T. Y.、Fu, L.(2005)。,Taipei City, Taiwan:Department of Health, Executive Yuan。
  28. Unruh, L.(2003).Licensed nurse staffing and adverse events in hospitals.Medical Care,41(1),142-152.
  29. Virtanen, M.,Pentti, J.,Vahtera, J.,Ferrie, J. E.,Stansfeld, S. A.,Helenius, H.,Kivinäki, M.(2007).Overcrowding in hospital wards as a predictor of antidepressant treatment among hospital staff.The American Journal of Psychiatry,165,1482-1486.
  30. Warwick, W. B.,Frank, A. S.(1998).Transferred patientsmore complex and more costly?.The Medical Journal of Australia,169,S42-S43.
Times Cited ( 1 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 郭郁如(2013)。台灣醫院屬性與醫護人力服務績效相關之探討。高雄醫學大學醫務管理暨醫療資訊學系碩士班學位論文。2013。1-105。
E-mail :
When an article is available to download, a notice will be sent to your mailbox address.
E-mail :