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Troy in the Troilus and Criseyde



本文主旨在於探討喬叟(Geoffrey Chaucer)的《特洛伊特斯與克麗西達》故事發生地特洛伊(Troy)所扮演的角色。正文大致上分成兩部分。第一部分從歷史及心理分析的視角探討特洛伊這個傳說中的城市如何激發中世紀的文學想像。在中世紀後期,歐洲不少國家或統治者在建構本國的建國神話時,都會利用古代神話傳說宣稱他們過往的歷史不但源遠流長而且光輝燦爛。在這股風潮之下,特洛伊是歐洲許多國家喜歡攀附的對象,英國也不例外。例如蒙茅斯的傑佛里(Geoffrey of Monmouth)所撰的《不列顛諸王史》就明確指出英國人的祖先可追溯到伊尼亞斯(Aeneas)的後代布魯特斯(Brutus)。第二部分則聚焦討論《特洛伊特斯與克麗西達》中特洛伊一方的主要人物與特洛伊在命運上緊密相連。以特洛伊特斯為例,從其姓名的根源及古典藝術品中對他的描寫,都顯示了人與城市的休戚與共。此外潘德勒斯(Pandarus)及克麗西達(Criseyde)的命運,在喬叟的描述中,也都與特洛伊的際遇有微妙的交互影響。

Parallel abstracts

The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of Troy in Geoffrey Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. The paper is broadly divided into two parts. From historical and psychological perspectives, the first part addresses the multifaceted role Troy played in the medieval literary imagination. In the late Middle Ages, a host of European ruling houses embarked on inventing their foundation myths by claiming that they had a long and illustrious pedigree. In this political climate, Troy, because of its unique position in secular history, became a city with which many nations, England included, endeavored to form connections. Geoffrey of Monmouth's The History of the Kings of Britain, for example, is a typical case wherein the author strives to demonstrate that the British are directly descended from Brutus, a scion of Aeneas. On the other hand, psychoanalytic theories will be drawn on to illustrate why as an extinct city Troy could still entice medieval European nations into eagerly associating themselves with it. The second part surveys the way in which the destinies of some major figures in the Troilus and Criseyde are inextricably intertwined with that of Troy. In the case of Troilus, his fate is bound up with that of Troy and his death therefore augurs Troy's doom; on the other hand, after Pandarus learns of Criseyde's fickleness, the always glib matchmaker is rendered speechless. And Criseyde's departure proves to be a turning point in the destiny of Troy, for it leads to self-pity on the part of Troilus, one of the most important champions of Troy. This part also advances the argument that Chaucer's reworking of the Trojan saga not only bears eloquent testimony to the contemporary mania in both the Continent and England for the legendary city, but also reflects the extent to which he was informed by the literary conventions prevailing in the Continent.

Parallel keywords

Chaucer Criseyde Pandarus Troilus Troy


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