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農工並存的鄉村:鹿港頂番婆水五金產業的政治生態學

Coexistence of Agricultural and Industrial Landuse on Farmland: The Political Ecology of Plumbing Hardware Manufacture in Dingfanpo, Lukang

Abstracts


臺灣的鄉村地區混雜著不同土地利用,廣袤平原常存有聚集或零星的農工並存地景。占用農地的工廠違反土地使用管制、破壞耕地完整、甚至污染農田,卻創造了非農產業、甚至產業鏈。農地工廠為何存在?農工如何互動?農地工廠對在地影響為何?如何與跨國企業、政府、能動者產生跨尺度的互動等問題,以及在地生活者如何回應,皆是緊密相連的政治生態學議題。本研究以汙染控制場址、國土利用調查圖資等,顯示水五金工業用地及影響集中頂番婆地區,從實證的角度指出農工並存的現狀;並透過實地考察與質性訪談,釐清各能動者的互動如何建構頂番婆水五金產業的政治生態解釋鏈。農地工廠是否隱含環境退化、資源衝突、生計與環境守護之拉扯,是值得探究的問題。本文指出頂番婆水五金工廠業者並非改變農業地景的單一能動者,尚有跨國企業的訂單、地方組織協作共舞、中央農地政策難以在地落實等,農地上的水五金產業雖以低成本的優勢為農村與農地上的業者帶來財富,卻衝擊著當地的生活品質與人地關係。解釋鏈分析頂番婆水五金產業的資本與資源流動,也檢視結構中的勝者與輸家,勝者之間的利益交換,也是農地工廠得以存續、農民承擔環境成本的原因。本研究體現各種能動者在頂番婆的環境政治生態的作為,也凸顯農工並存地景中的土地不正義。

Parallel abstracts


Rural areas in Taiwan have mixed land uses, with agricultural and industrial landscapes often coexisting on farmland. Factories on arable lands have violated land use control, destroyed the integrity of agricultural lands, and polluted farmlands. The development of farmland factories exist and rural industrial landscapes; interaction with different land uses the inter-scalar interactions that maintain them, and the actors involved; the degree to which such mixed use compromised the environmental integrity of farmland, and the reactions of local residents are all related issues of political ecology. This study utilizes the distribution of soil pollution control sites and related maps to illustrate coexisting agricultural and industrial land use. Further, this study also explains the interactions among all actors by conducting in-depth interviews to identify the chain of explanation for the political ecology of the plumbing hardware industry. The explanation chain illustrates the capital and resource flows within the plumbing hardware manufacturing sector of Dingfanpo. The chain also identifies the winners and losers of the political ecological structure, which are all stakeholders and driving forces for the phenomenon of mixed land use. Plumbing factories on farmland result not only from the plumbing hardware factory operators, but also multinational companies, local organizations, government regulations and their lack of implementation. The factories on farmland take advantage of low labor and environmental costs, compromise environmental quality, and alter the local man-land relationship. This study highlights various actors in the political ecology of Plumbing Hardware manufacturing in Dingfanpo, and emphasizes the injustice of coexisting agriculture and industry on farmlands.

References


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