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性別與教育期望

Gender and Educational Expectation

Abstracts


本研究以一般民眾對兩性教育期望爲指標,探討台灣教育擴張過程中的兩性教育機會均等問題。本研究的實證探討,是運用「1991台灣社會變遷基本調查第二其期第二次」的問卷調查資料,並將樣本分爲四個人口年輪,進行分析與比較。結果顯示,臺灣地區民眾的平均教育程度在過去數十年來已有顯著提高,男女兩性的平均教育差距也逐漸縮小至統計上不顯著水準。在這樣的脈絡下,兩性的主觀教育經驗也有著相當的差距與變化。就男女兩性的教育經驗差異而言,我們發現在重男輕女觀念下,男性所受的期望較高,但也承受了較大的壓力。另一方面,女性雖然自認成績好,但其最終的平均教育水準仍不若男性之高。隨著社會變遷與教育擴張,二者的教育程度差異漸不明顯,而年輕女性受教育過程中所承受的要求和壓力已不遜於男性。此外,女性教育程度與勞動參與率提高了,台灣民眾對於性別角色態度與兩性家務分工的看法,卻似乎沒有明顯的變化。 民眾對兩性教育期望的分析結果再一次地顯示,學校教育擴張與提升並沒有改變民眾的性別意識形態。雖然實際上除了最年輕組的受訪者外,男性的教育程度顯著高於女性,民眾卻認爲兩性的教育機會相當公平。雖然兩性的教育程度差異逐漸縮短,但是民眾對男性教育期望明顯高於女性,且對兩性教育期望的差距也沒有縮小的趨勢。雖然女性的教育程度較低,但是對教育的期望卻明顯高於男性,並且對兩性抱持不同教育期望的現象比男性更嚴重。多元歸分析的結果顯示,男女受訪者對教育期望的解釋模型極爲不同,整體解釋力也相當低。教育程度是唯一對教育期望持續具有純淨而顯著影響的因素。

Parallel abstracts


This study explores the issue of gender equity in educational expectation among Taiwanese people. Data collected from the ”Social Change Survey, 1990-1991” were analyzed. The sample is a multi-stage stratified systematic sample drawn from the total Taiwanese population, consisting of 2488 adults between the ages of twenty and seventy during the survey. The analytical results show that, in the process of educational expansion, the overall levels of educational attainment have increased over time. The gender gap in educational attainment is significant among older interviewees, and gradually narrows down between men and women of younger cohorts. Among the older cohorts, men enjoyed higher educational expectation and greater amount of resources than women. Men, however, were also under greater pressure. As women's levels of educational attainment increase, the pressure they suffer also intensified. Results also show that people's attitudes towards gender division of labor remain quite stable and traditional, despite the increase of women's level of education and labor market participation. Finally, people's educational expectation of men were significantly higher than that of women. Moreover, it is women that hold greater gender differential in educational expectation. One may thus speculate that Taiwan's schooling system has reproduced, rather than challenged, the patriarchal order of the society.

Cited by


吉正英(2019)。性別平等議題融入技術型高中法律與生活課程之行動研究—以「性別法律伴我行」教學方案為例〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2019.00488
林玿良(2010)。特殊教育班教師對於運用策略聯盟發展教育資源認知情形之調查研究─以新竹市為例〔碩士論文,中原大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6840/CYCU.2010.00027
王凱萱(2008)。貧窮青少年生涯抉擇影響因素之研究-以台灣兒童暨家庭扶助基金會為例〔碩士論文,國立暨南國際大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6837/NCNU.2008.00047
陳宥彤(2007)。臺灣地區高等教育就學機會性別差異之研究〔碩士論文,國立暨南國際大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6837/NCNU.2007.00006
蔡沛毓(2013)。不同世代男性在婚姻關係中的性別角色展演〔碩士論文,台南應用科技大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6821/TUT.2013.00054

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