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中國大陸全國人大專門委員會的制度化歷程及評估

Headway on Specialization but Deficiency on Autonomy: Institutionalization of the Permanent Committees in China's National People's Congress

Abstracts


中國大陸的公民社會逐漸展露自主性,但立法機構是否也出現類似趨勢,引起學界關注。本文根據政治學的相關理論,佐以中國大陸的實際狀況,提出制度化的操作定義,藉以探討並評估全國人大專委會的制度化發展。本文發現,在制度化的三個指標當中,「繁複性」進展最多,「普遍規則」也有部分增長,但「周界」的維護非但未獲提升,反而有微幅下降的趨勢。在「繁複性」方面,專委會成員明顯增加、委員年輕化、知識化和專業化的程度上升,有利於立法工作的推動。專委會的功能和作用獲得更明確的法規支撐,在議案和法案審議的職能也有所強化,使得「普遍規則」的建立有所提升,不過,行政和立法部門在法案起草方面的分工,加上委員會議事規則長久未能修訂,削弱了專委會立法功能。在「周界」方面,專委會資深領導增加有助於專業立法,但中共黨員比例占有絕對優勢、專委成員平均任期大幅下降、常委會委員比例增加,這些因素都不利於人大「周界」的建立。本文結論指出,全國人大專委會的專業能力固然有所提升,但自主性仍低,此一發展符合韌性威權的說法。

Parallel abstracts


As China's society is showing signs of civil autonomy and defiance, scholars wonder whether the legislatures, once a "rubber stamp," are gaining a new life by becoming more autonomous vis-a-vis the resilient party-state. Employing a new operational definition of institutionalization by supplementing the concepts borrowed from existing literature in China's National People's Congress (NPC), this article tries to analyze the institutional developments of the permanent committees in the NPC. The findings suggest that the NPC committees have indeed made great headway on the issue of "complexity" and even included some "universal criteria" in their rules, but problems with the "boundness" still linger. In the area of "complexity," the growth of committees in both size and numbers, recruitment of younger but better educated members, the emergence of seniority system in the selection of leadership and the rising trend towards specialization, have all contributed to building up capacity of the institution. While the function of law-drafting has been declining, committees have been granted more powers in the deliberation process, and hence more regularization. On the other hand, about 80% of committee members still retain CCP membership. More NPC Standing Committee members are serving in permanent committees than before, while shortened time served by committee members have added additional challenges to the consolidation of "boundness." In conclusion, the article substantiates the logic of "authoritarian resilience" by pointing out that although more specialization is obviously discernible in the NPC committees, autonomy remains weak.

References


人人通網站:http://www.renrentong.cn/default.htm。2013/2/5。
人大與議會網:http://www.e-cpcs.org/。2013/2/5。
尹中卿(2010)。中國人大組織構成和工作制度。北京:中國民主法制出版社。
尹中卿、艾志鴻、屠智鋒、趙燕等合著,2003,〈如何完善全國人大專門委員會的構成?〉,人民網:http://people.com.cn/GB/shizheng/19/20030603/1007423.html。2003/6/3。

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