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臺灣兒童貧窮:輪廓與成因

Profiles and Explanations of Child Poverty in Taiwan

Abstracts


本文以1988~2008年行政院主計處家庭收支調查資料,分析兒童貧窮輪廓、育兒家庭的致貧因素,及各致貧因素對1988與2008年間,育兒家庭貧窮率變化的影響。研究發現有四:1.兒童對整體貧民率貢獻日益下跌,貧民率與相對貧窮風險則呈波動狀況,且其水準受家庭等值規模之設定而異。2.經濟戶長之人力資本愈高、行職業薪資水準愈佳、家庭獲取生活資源的能力愈佳、家庭需求人口愈低者,兒童致貧風險愈低。3.不同戶長職業別之抗貧能力有差距擴大現象,過去常用的辨貧識別訊號,如:單親家庭、女性戶長等指標,已漸失準確性。4.在1988與2008年間,育兒家庭貧戶率差異最主要貢獻來源爲係數效果,該效果具有增加貧戶率之作用;特徵效果則有抑制貧戶率功能,且以戶長人力資本之貢獻度最大。前述分析結果反映臺灣兒童的貧窮日益多元化,政府宜審慎思因應此變化。

Parallel abstracts


Using data from the 1988-2008 Survey of Family Income and Expenditures, conducted by the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, the author analyzed child poverty profiles, the causes of poverty in families with dependent children, and how various causes of poverty influenced changes in poverty rates among families with dependent children from 1988 to 2008 in Taiwan. The key findings are as follows. 1. According to the family equivalence scale, which serves as one measure of the economic status of families of Taiwan, child poverty rates in Taiwan are decreasing and the corresponding poverty risk has been fluctuating. 2. The poverty risk for children is negatively related to their parents' human capital level and income status. 3. Differences in the abilities of household heads in different occupational categories to fight poverty are increasing. The traditional indicators of poverty, such as a single-parent household or a female household head, are no longer valid. 4. From 1988 to 2008, the data indicate that families with dependent children have higher poverty rates than those without dependent children. By contrast, the higher the human capital levels of the household head, the lower the poverty rate. Accordingly, the profile of child poverty in Taiwan is becoming more diverse and multifaceted. The government should take this factor into account in making policy.

References


李淑容(2006)。貧窮女性化之研究:兼論家庭收支調查資料庫之使用。國立政治大學社會學報。38,57-87。
呂朝賢(1995)。貧窮的性別與婚姻屬性差異。婦女與兩性學刊。6,25-54。
張清富(1992)。貧窮變遷與家庭結構。婦女與兩性學刊。3,41-58。
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