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宗教與「非家者」的交集-台灣宗教性慈善暨社福團體「遊民服務」之現況、瓶頸與展望

Intertwining Relationship Between Religion and Homeless Individuals-the Current Situation, Obstacles, and Prospects of the Homeless Service in Faith-based Charity and Social Welfare Organizations Across Taiwan

Abstracts


無論古今中外,「宗教」在「非家者」中,都扮演著重要的角色。本文先就宗教與「非家者」的交集,作一歷史性回顧,接著探討台灣宗教性慈善暨社福團體對「弱勢非家者」(即遊民)的服務與輔導。初步歸納出如下三點結論:一、台灣宗教團體由於廣慈博愛的宗教信念使然,對遊民較為友善接納。有些宗教團體定時、定點為遊民提供餐飲,遊民也較常借住在寺廟與教堂。遊民在需要幫助時,最常救助的對象,除了親友之外,就屬社工員與宗教人士。而社工員分散於政府部門與民間機構,這些民間機構的主事者往往有宗教背景,有的機構甚至由教會支持或主導。因此,宗教人士所組成的宗教性社福或慈善機構,在台灣的遊民服務網絡中,占有舉足輕重的份量。二、台灣的宗教性遊民救助常設機構,以基督宗教與佛教為主,其中基督宗教更屬大宗。相較而言,台灣雖以佛教、道教與民間信仰為人口大宗,但專門以遊民為扶助對象的佛、道教機構反而較少。這可能與基督宗教自中世紀以來的傳統有關。三、宗教性遊民救助機構有明確的「宗教信念」,主管、職員與志工,往往帶有強烈的宗教情操與使命感。在遊民服務的過程中,助人者與受助者,往往都感覺到生命境界的提昇。

Parallel abstracts


The world's religions have played a crucial role in providing care for the homeless since ancient times till today. This paper first examines how religions have intertwined with the homeless from a historic perspective, then explores the way Taiwanese religious and social welfare institutions provide support and instructions for the "disadvantaged and homeless" (a.k.a. street people). Conclusive findings are presented as follows: 1. In Taiwan, religious organizations, which make it a point to practice beneficence and philanthropy, show more compassion and acceptance for street people. Some of these religious institutions provide food and drinking water to homeless individuals at fixed locations regularly. On the other hand, street people tend to ask for shelter in temples and churches. When street people need help, they seek support from their relatives and friends, as well as social workers and religious people. Social workers can be found in government agencies and private organizations at the same time. Most of the leaders of private organizations have religious affiliations; some of these organizations are funded, supported, or even led by churches. On that account, faith-based social welfare or charity organizations established by religious leaders contribute a lot toward the service network for street people in Taiwan. 2. When it comes to permanent faith-based charity institutions in Taiwan, a majority of them are Christian and Buddhism organizations. Christian institutions have a tradition of dedicating themselves to provideing for the poor and homeless, which can be traced back to the Middle Ages. By comparison, the organizations based on the doctrines of Taoism, folk religion, or Buddhism have done much less in this regard. 3. Faith-based social welfare institutions have specific "religious beliefs;" hence, their managers, employees, and volunteers all have religious enthusiasm and a strong sense of commitment. The kind act of serving street people elevates the state of well-being for both the helper and recipient.

References


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永方(2007)。藥師如來十二大願與非營利事業。普門雜誌。41

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