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國中融合教育中身心障礙受凌學生遭受普通班同儕霸凌現況及原因之研究-以一所國中為例

A Study of the Status and Cause for Students with Disabilities Being Bullied by the Peers in Inclusive Classes: Take One Junior High School Setting as an Example

Abstracts


本研究旨在探討國中融合教育中身心障礙受凌學生遭受霸凌行為、因應霸凌方式及遭受霸凌的原因,以有助於未來防制霸凌輔導工作。研究進行採質性研究法,透過與身心障礙受凌學生、導師、霸凌學生訪談,輔以檔案文件、觀察等資料加以分析。結果發現身心障礙受凌學生主要遭受肢體霸凌、言語霸凌及關係霸凌等霸凌類型;且身心障礙受凌學生為班上不受歡迎的人,遭到班上大多數普通班同儕霸凌。普通班同儕可依霸凌行為分為顯性霸凌學生及隱性霸凌學生。此外,在因應霸凌的方式主要以自言自語表達不滿、當下反擊、報告導師等方式,皆無法有效減少霸凌且產生無力感。遭受霸凌的原因主要有舉止怪異、社交技巧差、干擾上課等以致激發霸凌行為。加上導師以「弱化身心障礙學生引發同情」的方式處理霸凌問題,更貶抑身心障礙受凌學生班級地位。此外,亦發現資源班所提供服務,未能直接改善霸凌情形;且因接受資源班服務的標記作用而遭受同儕異樣眼光。而更甚班上儼然已形成冷漠姑息氣氛將身心障礙受凌學生視作圈外人時,身心障礙受凌學生在班上更顯得孤立。

Parallel abstracts


The purpose of this study was to explore the condition of students with disabilities who were bullied by their peers and the reasons for being bullied in inclusive classes in a junior high school. This research attempted to understand bullying problems through conducting interviews with bullied students with disabilities, teachers, and bullying students. Relevant files, documents and observations were also collected and analyzed for understanding the current status and the causes of being bullied. Subsequently a proposed anti-bully mentoring program was formulated based on the findings. The main findings of this study were as follows: The primary bullying behaviors found in the study were common in the typical school ground, such as physical bullying, verbal bullying and interpersonal bullying. Peer bullies in the inclusive classroom could be categorized into those of overt bulling type and covert bullying type. Although the overt bullying type students were just a few in number they exhibited explicit bullying behaviors. The majority of the bullying behaviors, however, were the covert type - these students overlooked bullying behaviors by other students and participated in subtle bullying behaviors themselves (such as isolating and excluding the bullied victim). The reasons for being bullied by students with disabilities include: having a poor academic standing, exhibiting atypical behaviors, having poor social skills, causing disruptions in their classes, and being unable to fit the norms of their peer group. These above behaviors often rendered bullied students the target of dislike by their peers and set off bullying behaviors by peers. When teachers intervened by applying the approach that “highlights the needs and weaknesses of students with disabilities to incur compassion” in dealing with bully incidences, it often ended up stigmatizing the bullied students further. Inadvertently, the process ostracizes the bullied students with disability even more and exacerbates the uneven power relation among the students in a regular classroom. In addition, the services provided by resource classroom teachers were inadequate in addressing the bullying situations suffered by students with disabilities. Finally, based on the above findings this paper offers some suggestions for implementing anti-bullying intervention programs in the future.

References


王于欣(2011)。近兩年國內外融合教育之學術論文分析。特殊教育季刊。118,34-43。
毛連塭、許素彬(1995)。情緒/行為異常學生的融合教育。特殊教育季刊。57,18-21。
中華民國兒童福利聯盟文教基金會(2009):反霸凌實驗方案實錄。取自 http://www.children.org.tw/database_p0.php?offset=5&id=276&typeid=26 [Child Welfare League Foundation ROC. (2009). Anti-Bully experimental program record. Retrieved from:http://www.children.org.tw/database_p0.php?offset=5&id=276&typeid=26]
王慶福譯、洪光遠譯、程淑華譯、王郁茗譯、Brehm, S. S.、Kassin, S.、Fein, S.(2005)。社會心理學。臺北:雙葉書廊。
伊甸基金會(2013):伊甸統計九成身障學童遭霸凌。取自http://mag.udn.com/mag/life/printpage.jsp?f_ART_ID=476264 [Eden Social Welfare Foundation. (2013). Eden calculates 90% studuents with disablilties suffer bully. Retrieved from: http://mag.udn.com/mag/life/printpage.jsp? f_ART_ID=476264]

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劉依亭(2016)。桌上遊戲應用於國中腦性麻痺學生學習社會技巧之個案研究〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2016.00199
陳怡萱(2018)。「當心,教室裡無聲的惡魔!」 關係霸凌因應策略之回溯研究〔碩士論文,中原大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6840/cycu201800115
郭思彤(2018)。高中職身心障礙學生學校適應情形及影響因素之調查研究〔碩士論文,中原大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6840/cycu201800046
何禹年(2016)。運用焦點團體訪談回溯過往關係霸凌之經驗〔碩士論文,中原大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6840/cycu201600397

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