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天台宗的“圓極架構”-關於天台宗圓教所統攝之救度學、存有學與語言用法三方面的脈絡線索之探究

Entelechy as Structural Clue to the System of Tiantai Teaching-The Threefold Link-age of Soteriology, Ontology and Paradoxical Articulation in Tiantai Teaching

Abstracts


大部分的現代佛學研究在其義理詮釋方面上仍然使用佛教傳統本身的教義名稱來闡釋其不同脈絡之意義。若其義理詮釋之語言用法不超越佛教傳統本身的教義名稱,佛學研究很容易地成爲一種封閉的研究領域。若現代佛學詮釋無法顯示出,其義理也可以包含一些超越其傳統佛教脈絡範圍之外的涵義,其與其他研究領域之間的交互啟發也成爲不可能。此封閉的狀態會陷入於一種反復同義的義理詮釋。 筆者在此一篇論文嘗試透過「圓極架構」此語之探討對天台宗教義之傳統表述與其現代哲學詮釋之語言用法加以調解。「圓極」此語既可以在天台宗文獻中找到出處,它也是西洋哲學術語(entelecheia)之中文翻譯。筆者認爲,雖然其兩個脈絡原來在內審上無相關,但在其形式結構上還是可以認得出此兩個之間的可能交集點。筆者將此形式結構稱爲「圓滿實現之構成原理」,並且主張此種意義之「圓極架構」可以作爲教義之傳統表述與其現代哲學設釋之間的仲介:在此基本架構的範圍之內,可以依哲學的詮釋方法顯示出天台宗義理體系之一些構造環節及其彼此之間的關聯性。筆者特別注意到以下三個在義理體系中之構造環節:救度學義、存有學義、弔詭表述及此三者的相關聯。此三個課題已爲牟宗三及吳汝鈞所討論,但就此三個課題在圓教之義理體系上的相關聯而論,兩個學者並沒有對此進行徹底的闈述。因此筆者特別探討天台宗的救度學義與存有學義之交涉及其相關的弔詭表述。所統攝此三個環節的脈絡線索就是「圓極架構」。 以下筆者首先介紹現代佛學詮釋有關天台宗之存有學義上的一些看法,並且對此加以評論,特別是對牟果三與吳汝鈞的一些觀點。然後筆者嘗試顯示出,「圓極」此語在天台義理與西洋哲學傳統中所可能包含的交集點及其限制,其論證步咪如下:(一)闡釋在天台文獻中「圓極」此語之義,(二)闡釋在西洋哲學脈絡中「圓極」之義,(三)指出兩個原來無相關的脈絡在形式結構上還是以「圓滿實現之構成原理」爲其交集點。然後具體地分析出,天台圓教之圓融與終極意義、其相關的弔詭表述與其救度學之心識說所包含的存有學義,此三者彼此之間的關聯性。

Parallel abstracts


This investigation attempts to mediate between doctrinal language of Tiantai Buddhism and a modern usage of language fitting its philosophical interpretation. I choose the philosophical term 'entelechy' as the key-concept of this mediation for a certain reason: One of this con-cept's expressions translated into modern Chinese is a neologism that exactly corresponds to a technical term in doctrinal language of Tiantai Buddhism. The Tiantai Buddhist meaning of it could be rendered as ”ultimate completion” in English. Although this correspondence seems to be a coincidence, which does not hint at any affinity between Bud-dhism and the respective western traditions referring to 'entelechy', this Chinese term simultaneously meaning 'ultimate completion' and 'entelechy' could provide a structural clue to illuminate the threefold linkage between Tiantai soteriology, its ontology and its apparent feature of paradoxical articulation. The literal meaning of 'entelechy' apart from its understanding in the philosophy of Aristoteles is 'including one's ultimate end [of completion]' derived from the Greek roots of 'including' and 'telos [=end]'. If we just resort to that structure based on the literal meaning of this term, we can find a key to disclose the constitutive elements in the system of Tiantai teaching. The famous Tiantai doctrine of 'one-moment-thought involving three thousand worlds [=totality of all things]' refers to the soteriological viewpoint that each moment of sentient beings' mental activity contains the potential of completing the ultimate end of universal salvation with regard to all sentient beings. Realization of this potency is based on teaching and transformation, which in turn is understood as an extension of 'contemplating one's own mind'. 'Self-transformation' based on 'contemplating one's mind' includes its extension to the transformation of deluded sentient beings by means of teaching. Therefore each moment-thought includes universal reference to the world of all sentient beings. The ontological meaning indivisibly linked with this soteriological ideal, then, expresses that each moment of sentient beings' mental activity presupposes the existence of its environmental world to which it necessarily refers. Mental activity and the totality of all its references mean 'existence in/with and of one's environmental world'. This again points back to the soteriological meaning that all sentient beings' fades of salvation must be interrelated. Consequently, one's own progress on the path for salvation benefits that of other sentient beings and vice versa, which is expressed by the Tiantai doctrine of 'benefiting oneself as benefiting others'. Each moment of existence is indispensable and necessary, be-cause its interrelation with others points to the ultimate value of universal salvation. The ultimate value of sentient beings' profane existence consists of its instructional clue to universal salvation for all sentient beings. The Tiantai-school expresses this idea by means of paradoxical articulation-such as 'non-duality between the sacred and pro-fane'. Each transitory moment of existence represents an end in itself-each moment of existence virtually includes the totality of sentient beings' diverse paths based upon which universal salvation can be completed. This fits the structural meaning of entelechy as 'including one's ultimate end of completion'. For that reason, the term 'entelechy' might be useful to demonstrate the threefold linkage of soteriology, ontology and paradoxical articulation-the constitutive elements marking the doctrinal system of Tiantai teaching. In this paper I will first critically refer to other viewpoints on ontology of Tiantai teaching, before I start to expound my standpoint of 'entelechy as structural clue to the system of Tiantai teaching', which also means to demonstrate the limits of its restrictive usage.

References


(1983)。大正新修大藏經。臺北:新文豐。
大正藏:中論
大正藏:法華玄義
大正藏:觀音玄義
大正藏:華嚴法界玄鏡

Cited by


釋印隆(2010)。水陸儀軌之天台圓觀思想研究〔碩士論文,法鼓文理學院〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6819/DILA.2010.00004
鄭心怡(2009)。維摩詰菩薩般若波羅蜜教學之研究〔碩士論文,國立清華大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0016-1111200916025227

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