Have library access?
IP:3.236.143.154
  • Journals

玄奘的戒學生活、伽藍見聞與律學觀點

Master Xuan Zang's Life of Discipline, Experience atSangharama and Views on Vinaya

Abstracts


依據玄奘的戒律生活,與他在西行求法時,於各地僧伽藍的見聞實錄,玄奘的戒律觀,可歸納以下四點:一、面對異國風土民情,他會寬容地看待因時因地制宜的「隨方毘尼」,如改變安居月份、改變僧團序次形式等,他都不以為忤,不會陷入教條主義的泥淖。二、「隨方毘尼」有凌駕於戒條之上的原理、原則以為依憑。雖然在既有文獻中,欠缺玄奘在這方面的完整觀點,但是從他對許多案例所下的斷語,可歸納出這樣的結論:「令正法久住」與「護生」這兩大原則,正是他作律學判斷或掌握行為分際時的最高依憑。因此無論如何入境隨俗,他總是堅持不食酒肉。三、作為一位大乘行人,他面對部派僧團的教條主義現象,會直下以判教的方式,將它視為不究竟的「漸教」。顯然「漸教」的影響層面,不祇是教義而已。四、他一生風雲際會,見過中、印兩大強國與許多小邦國的帝王,而且都受到備極崇高的禮遇,但是他不落驕慢,不慕俗譽,一心一意求法、學法、弘法、譯經。對於佛教所受到的不平等待遇,則相當介意,念茲在茲,據理力爭,以維護僧伽尊嚴。他雖深受帝王、師長的知遇之恩,但在謙恭感念的同時,依然不忘卻牢牢掌握住「令正法久住」與「護生」的原理、原則,傾全力於弘法度生的崇高志業。

Parallel abstracts


According to Master Xuan Zang's life of discipline, and his records of experiences at Sangharamas at various places during his journey to the West in seeking the dharma, we may summarise the Master's view on vinaya into four points:1. He was able to adjust the vinaya to adapt to time and environmental conditions of different cultures and customs in various countries. He did not fall into the trap of dogmatism. For example, he agreed to the adjustment of the month of rain retreat, and the styles and sequential arrangement of the Sangha order according to circumstances without fear and hesitation.2. While he tried to adapt the vinaya to different circumstances, there were higher principles that he set his foundation upon. Although there was a lack of information in the current texts with regards to the complete view of the principles that the Master based his view on, from the decision he made under many circumstances, we could conclude that there were two main principles, namely, ‘to prolong the righteous dharma’ and 'to protect life'. These were the two highest principles that the Master based his judgment upon in his study of precepts and making behavioural decisions. Thus, no matter how he tried to adapt to the environment, he always insisted not to drink alcohol or eat meat.3. As a Mahayana practitioner, when confronting dogmatism among the practitioners of Sectarian Buddhism, he applied the 'classification of teachings' method. He saw these teachings as 'gradual teachings' that were not ultimate. It was obvious that the impact/influence of the 'gradual teachings' was more than the context of its teaching only.4. Throughout his life, Master Xuan Zang had met a lot of people. He had seen the kings of both big and small countries in India and China. He was treated with great respect and honour. However, he was never too proud of himself. He did not attach to the worldly fame. He devoted himself wholeheartedly in seeking the dharma, learning and promoting the dharma, and translating the sutras. He cared a lot about the unfair treatment that Buddhists encountered and tried his best to fight for the right for Sangha members so that their dignity could be preserved. While having a great sense of gratitude towards the kindness of the kings and teachers that he met, he upheld firmly the principles of 'prolonging the righteous dharma' and 'protecting life'. He devoted himself wholeheartedly in the venture of propagating the dharma and guiding sentient beings.

References


慧立本,彥悰箋,《大唐大慈恩寺三藏法師傳》,大正五○,二四七中、卷二,大正五○,二二六下~二二七上、卷四,大正五○,二四四下~二四五下、卷五,大正五○,二四八上、卷五,大正五○,二四六上~中、卷一,大正五○,二二二中、卷二,大正五○,二二七中、卷二,大正五○,二五三中、卷二,大正五○,二五五上~下、卷二,大正五○,二五三上~下、卷九,大正五○,二七○上、卷九,大正五○,二七○上~中。
道宣,《續高僧傳》卷四,大正五○,四四六下。
智昇,《開元釋教錄》卷八,大正五五,五六一中。
道宣,《釋門章服儀》:「木蘭一染,此方有之。赤多黑少,若乾陀色。」(大正四五,八三七中)。
「草繫比丘」,語出《大莊嚴論經》卷三

Read-around


  • 市村承秉(2005)。羅什及玄奘所譯之《般若心經》與其文化方面的影響中華佛學學報(18),327-360。https://doi.org/10.6986/CHBJ.200507.0327
  • 楊維中(2013)。玄奘大師早期行曆若干問題考述玄奘佛學研究(19),25-51。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=18133649-201303-201304240018-201304240018-25-51
  • 景天星(2016)。「玄奘精神」研究述評玄奘佛學研究(26),57-80。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=18133649-201609-201610200010-201610200010-57-80
  • 李姿嫻(2015)。Xia Shu Fang Life and Works東吳中文線上學術論文(30),53-72。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=20750404-201506-201507290006-201507290006-53-72
  • 李萬進(2017)。A Study of Master Xingyun thought on Mind-only Pure Land。載於香港中文大學人間佛教研究中心 、 香港菩提出版社(主編),眾力莊嚴.一佛圓滿——人間淨土與彌陀淨土(頁397-415)。香港中文大學人間佛教研究中心;香港菩提出版社。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=P20220303004-201712-202203030020-202203030020-397-415