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智顗大師止觀修證歷程之研究─以「賢山潛修」至「天台圓悟」時期為主

The Research on Master Chi-Yi's Process of Enlightenment through the Approach of Chih-Guan (Ceasing and Penetrating) :Mainly on the Period in the Reclusion in Da-xien Mountain and the Enlightenment in Tien-taiComplete Enlightenment

Abstracts


本文主要解析智顗從初出家至天台山隱修時期,其止觀修行的歷程與證境,以做為了解天台圓頓止觀思想的根源。學界向來重視天台的思想與義理,而少部分研究止觀論題者,則對智顗的實修經驗與止觀證境常略而不談。根據筆者的研究發現,智顗的止觀修行經驗,對於其解釋傳統印度禪學與建構自家天台圓頓止觀,無論在內容、方法與架構上,皆有深遠之影響。智顗從初出家至天台圓悟時期的止觀修證歷程,約可分為四個階段,即:一、初出家時,曾潛隱於大賢山,修持以法華經系為主的信願行門,並曾感得勝相現前。二、參學時期,依從慧思受學,於其指導下,得到「旋陀羅尼」的修行成果與「法華三昧前方便」境界的印證。三、壯年時期,依師命入金陵弘講傳禪,此時智顗依於自身所修不次第法而轉得次第禪境的修行體證,撰作以《次第禪門》為主的禪修典籍。四、天台隱修期,於華頂峰修頭陀行時,曾得遇神僧傳法與護持的奇遇。智顗更依此時入一實相法的經驗與體證,撰作《摩訶止觀》,以為天台圓頓止觀修行中的代表作品。在以上內容分析的基礎上,對照於龍樹對大乘修行三要門的分類,可知智顗此一時期止觀實修的經驗與證境,是以信願與智解為主的大乘修行法門,而這也是《摩訶止觀》中「生圓信」與「修圓行」的思想淵源。

Parallel abstracts


This essay aims to analyze Chih-yi's process of practice and the confines of enlightenment, since his ordination to the period of his seclusion in Tien-tai, as the basis to comprehend Tien-tai's thought of Yuen-dun-chihguan. The academic field has emphasized much more on Tien-tai's thought and meanings, and those people whose research topic is Chih-kuan pay less attention on or even neglect Chih-yi's practice experience and the confines of his enlightenment. According to my research, his practice experience of Chih-kuan has profound impact upon his explanation about traditional Indian meditation and the construction of his own Tian-tai Yuan-dun-chi-kuan, no matter in content, methods, or the frame. This article divides Chih-yi's learning and practice process into four stages since his ordination to the period of his seclusion in Tien-tai. First, when he just became a monk, he lived in seclusion in Da-xien Mountain, holding the themes of faith and practice of Fa Hua as his main method; he had ever seen the appearance of his transcendence. Second, during the period of his learning, he followed Huei-shi's instruction. Under his guidance, Chih-yi got circle dharnani (旋陀羅尼) and had the proof of the phenomena of Elementary yet Skilful Means of Fa Hua San Mei (saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi). Third, in his adulthood, taking the order of his teacher, he went to Jin-ling and delivered speeches on meditation. Meanwhile, Chih-yi wrote a meditation book mainly on ”The Order of Entering the Gate of Meditation”, because his enlightenment experience of meditation based on the non-step-by-step method brought him into the step-by-step meditation refines. Fourth, during the period of his seclusion in Tien-tai, living an ascetic life in Huading-fong, he ever met a magical monk, who told him the dharma and supported him. Furthermore, Chih-yi applied this experience and enlightenment of perceiving the Truth as the basis to write ”Mo He Zhi Kuan”, the representative work of Tien-tai sect's Yuen-Dun-Zhi-Kuan. Based on the above analysis and compared with the classification of the three main practices of Mahayana Buddhism made by Nāgārjuna, we know Chih-yi's experience of Zhi-Kuan practice and enlightened refines belongs to Mahayana practice methods - mainly the themes of faith & practice and wisdom & understanding. This is also the origin of the thought - ”growing the complete belief” and ”developing the complete practice” - in ”Mo He Zhi Kuan”.

References


姚秦•鳩摩羅什譯,《摩訶般若波羅蜜經》,《大正藏》冊5-8。
姚秦•鳩摩羅什譯,《妙法蓮華經》,《大正藏》冊9。
劉宋•曇摩蜜多譯,《佛說觀普賢菩薩行法經》,《大正藏》冊9。
劉宋•智嚴譯,《佛說法華三昧經》,《大正藏》冊9。
姚秦•鳩摩羅什譯,《思惟略要法》,《大正藏》冊15。

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