The overall objective of this paper is to investigate the types and proportions of nano-carbon based conductive materials (carbon powders and fiber), the mixing procedures, and the characteristics of conductive mortar, including the heating performance, with a focus on optimizing self-heating ECON mix design with desirable electrical and mechanical properties for airfield pavement deicing applications. A state-of-the-art review on relevant literature was conducted to identify the various conductive materials that have been investigated in the past, their optimal concentration levels to achieve desirable system-level engineering properties, and the various challenges in optimizing the ECON mix design and achieving a cost-effective ECON system. In the experimental investigation, mortar specimens modified with conductive materials at different concentration levels were compared with untreated (control) specimens in terms of electrical and mechanical properties. Conductivity and strength performance assessment of the experimental results revealed that 6-mm chopped carbon fiber (CCF) utilized in this study is capable of providing improved electrical conductivity in comparison to carbon based conductive powders without loss of strength and workability. Among carbon based conductive powders, the coarsest graphite powder provides acceptable electrical conductivity improvement and lesser loss of strength and workability. Heating characteristic of conductive mortar indicates that conductive materials which can enhance ECON conductivity could provide heating performance improvement for airfield pavement deicing application.