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清代臺灣岸裡社熟番的地權主張-以大甲溪南墾地為例

Land Reclamation and Plains Aborigines' Land Rights in Anli She in Taiwan during the Qing

Abstracts


本文以清代臺灣中部著名的熟番部落岸裡社為例,試圖說明不同的族群如何進行文化建構以強化土地的支配權。作者首先究明岸裡社之大甲溪南墾地的地權來源並非以往所認為的「政府∕皇帝賞賜」,而是來自於18世紀初政府鼓勵開墾荒地的規定。岸裡社從政府手中獲得龐大土地的勢力擴張,在雍正九年時導致了中部地區廣泛的熟番叛亂。這場長達一年的動亂和鎮壓徹底改變了中部地區的權力構造,並導致了地權紛爭的再次出現。「政府∕皇帝賞賜」說是在18世紀末,當部落陷入內部的權力鬥爭以及外部漢人的農墾壓力下,才逐漸被建構出來的。與此同時,漢人在面對熟番的訴訟抗爭以及國家保護熟番的政策立場,也開始將他們的地權來源建構在漢番婚姻關係、開墾有功(增加國家稅收)以及深獲皇帝讚賞之上。此外,熟番對於地權的建構也為地方官員所接受,並在司法審判中援引為判決之基礎。熟番地權來自於政府賞賜的說法,終於在19世紀後成為各方都能接受的定論。

Keywords

臺灣 熟番 地權 文化建構 清代

Parallel abstracts


This article uses the Anli aboriginal tribe in central Taiwan in the Qing as a case study to demonstrate how ethnic groups used cultural constructions to strengthen their land rights. The Anli initially gained land rights over lands south of the Dajia river not, as is widely believed, because the land was bestowed by the state or the emperor, but on the basis of eighteenth century regulations to encourage land reclamation. The Anli tribe obtained large amounts of land as a result of these policies, leading to a rebellion by other aborigines in central Taiwan in 1731. This year-long rebellion and its suppression substantially altered the power structure in the region, and led to the reappearance of disputes over land rights. The notion that land had been bestowed by the state or emperor was gradually constructed in the late eighteenth century, at a time when the aborigines were suffering from both internal power conflicts and external pressure from Han Chinese farmers who were expanding towards their land. In the face of litigation from aborigines as well as official policies to protect the aborigines, some Han Chinese also began to claim land rights on the basis of Han-aborigine inter-marriage. These claims were based on the argument that land reclamation increased government tax revenues and the principle that the land had been bestowed by the emperor. Local officials accepted the aborigines' claims of land rights and adjudicated on the basis of these claims. By the nineteenth century the notion that the land rights of the aborigines had been bestowed by the emperor or the state had become generally accepted.

Parallel keywords

Taiwan aborigines land rights cultural construction Qing dynasty

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